How Sleep Deprivation Affects The Brain
A lack of sleep can increase stress and even trigger depressive episodes. Further, struggling with stress, anxiety, and depression can make it harder to fall asleep, creating a vicious cycle of insomnia, stress, anxiety, and depression.
These conditions can affect our overall mood, physical health, and ability to focus and make critical choices. For example, individuals who work for a living may find their lack of sleep having profound effects on their ability to get a job done or may begin making mistakes. If a person works in construction or in a job that requires heavy machinery, sleep deprivation could have life-altering consequences.
When you’re faced with sleep deprivation, even the most minor challenges can leave you feeling overwhelmed and in tears.
Sleep deprivation can put individuals young and old alike in a bad mood. When we’re babies, parents often put us down for naps so we can recharge; even as adults, when we’re cranky, we probably need sleep. Unfortunately, our culture seems to value sleep less and less as we age, neglecting how essential sleep is for our primary functions.
The unexpected flat tire or toddler tantrum is a lot easier to handle after a full night of rest.
If you’re having trouble remembering where you put your keys, take a breath. Instead of assuming you’re suffering from memory loss, you may just need a little more sleep.
Focus & Decision Making
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What Causes Sleep Anxiety
Anxiety is a natural part of being human. Were meant to feel afraid or worried in dangerous situations. Stress and anxiety trigger our bodies to release hormones that help us react quickly to escape harm. But if you have chronic anxiety, you might feel stress or worry all the time. You may feel fearful of everyday situations like driving to work or even falling asleep.
Chronically high levels of these hormones, especially before sleep, can make it hard for your body to relax. You may have difficulty falling asleep. If you do fall asleep, you may wake up during the night with stressful or worrisome thoughts and not be able to fall asleep again.
The combination of a anxiety and insomnia can also be caused by a condition where there isnt enough thyroid hormone in your bloodstream and your metabolism slows down .
Research suggests that anxiety can affect rapid eye movement sleep. This is the phase of sleep when you tend to have vivid dreams. If you have anxiety, the dreams may be disturbing or turn into nightmares that wake you.
Just as anxiety can affect sleep, sleep can affect anxiety. Sleep anxiety is a common characteristic of insomnia, wherein the individual begins to experience anxiety during the day and evening about poor sleep, which may help cause another night of bad sleep.
How Much Sleep Do We Need
Most of us need around 8 hours of good-quality sleep a night to function properly but some need more and some less. What matters is that you find out how much sleep you need and then try to achieve it.
As a general rule, if you wake up tired and spend the day longing for a chance to have a nap, it’s likely that you’re not getting enough sleep.
A variety of factors can cause poor sleep, including health conditions such as sleep apnoea. But in most cases, it’s due to bad sleeping habits.
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Cant Sleep Due To Anxiety 7 Tips From An Insomnia Expert
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During this time of extreme uncertainty, many of us are struggling to sleep. If youre like me, you fall asleep easily but wake up at about 3am thinking of whatever was on your mind during the day, or perhaps your subconscious decides to think about the state of the world. You might also struggle with falling asleep at all.;
Trust us, youre not alone. So many of you have reached out about sleep struggles. Weve taken your questions and given them directly to Dr. Leah Farrell-Carnahan, a personal friend, trusted insomnia expert, and licensed clinical psychologist and founder and director of Atlanta CBT. Dr. Farrell-Carnahan has helped hundreds of people who struggle with insomnia, so if you cant sleep due to anxiety, this article is for you!
Please note that Dr. Farrell-Carnahan gives general advice, which is NOT meant to replace any specific advice or recommendations you have been given from your personal healthcare providers. It is always a good idea to consult with your personal physician if you notice that you are having trouble sleeping.
When Is The Best Time To Discuss My Childs Fears
Acknowledge that being scared or worried is normal and that all people feel scared or worried sometimes. Let your child know that they can always talk to you about things they feel worried about and together you can work out a solution. Try discussing fear during the day . Talk about how they can be less scared at night and reassure them that their bedroom is a safe place. Get them to practice getting rid of their fears by imagining their favourite colour as a big cloud that pushes fear away or making fear into a big balloon that they can prick with a pin to make disappear.
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Substance Use And Risky Behavior
Research by Dr. Carskadon and several others shows that sleep-deprived teens are far more likely to use stimulants like caffeine and nicotine to get through the day but also to deal with sleep-related negative moods by self-medicating with alcohol. Theyre also more likely to engage in unprotected sex and reckless driving than teens who get upwards of 7 hours of sleep a night because they lack impulse control and suffer from impaired judgment that leads to poor decision-making.
As a college student, Carolyn Capputo made the choice to drive knowing she was severely sleep deprived even after shed fallen asleep at the wheel. Now a number of years out of college, she knows she was lucky she didnt cause a serious accident, but at the time it just didnt seem like a big deal. The summer before my sophomore year in college, she says, Id routinely stay up past 3 am chatting online with my best friend because we missed each other and were still keeping college hours . Then Id wake up at 6:30 in the morning to go to my summer job. I fell asleep driving to work more than once.
There is data that shows that because teens are not fully developed in terms of their executive functioning, says Dr. Carskadon, even acute short-sleep can lead to risky behavior and poor judgment. The combination of the lack of infrastructure and poor sleep sends them down the wrong path.
A Trigger For Mental Illness
In addition, since many mental illnesses first show up in the teenage years, doctors worry that severe sleep deprivation could trigger a serious depression in kids who are already predisposed to it.
Last year Ben Freedman, a 17-year-old junior at Pioneer High School in Ann Arbor, Michigan, suffered what his dad, Jonathan, a professor at the University of Michigan, describes as a pretty bad clinical depression. Ben says the combination of chronic sleep deprivation and stress from an overwhelming academic workload triggered a severe mix of depression and anxiety. I was way tired out, he says. And less sleep put me in a really, really depressed state. I was suffering really badly. Ben says he was getting 5-6 hours of sleep at the time but his dad says it was less. Ben took on too many AP courses last year, says Jonathan. He and his friends were pulling all-nighters and I as a dad intervened as much as I possibly could. Sleep deprivation and depression go hand-in-hand, and Bens kind of a melancholy guy.
Medication, therapy and changing his sleep habits have all helped Ben feel better, but his dad says convincing Ben that he had to make changes wasnt easy. There was a lot of resistance at first. It took a while but eventually he came around and hes committed to more regular consistent sleep.
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Lack Of Sleep And Anxiety
So, can lack of sleep cause anxiety? In a word, yes. This typically happens with a sleep disorder instead of occasional sleep problems. However, you can potentially experience worry during any episode of sleeplessness. This worry may be directed at sleeplessness itself, or at some other target such as an upcoming daytime activity. Scientists now believe that sleep deprivation and other ongoing sleep disruptions may play an important role in setting the stage for diagnosable anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. These disruptions may also play a key role in triggering the onset of depression and a wide array of other diagnosable mental health issues. However, not all people with sleep problems or sleep disorders will develop problems with anxiousness, an anxiety disorder or any other mental health condition.
A Brief Survey Of Sleep Physiology
Human sleep consists of two qualitatively different, brain states, non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement. sleep. NREM sleep is further subdivided into stages 1 through 4, with stage 1 being the lightest and stage 4 being the deepest, sleep. Since slow delta waves distinguish stages 3 and 4, the stages are often defined as delta sleep or slow-wave sleep . REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep because of the close resemblance with the electroencephalogram of active wakefulness combined with a paradoxical active inhibition of major muscle groups that seems to reflect, a heavy sleep. Normal sleep is characterized electrographically as recurrent cycles of NREM and REM. sleep of about 90 min. In the successive cycles during the night, the duration of stages 3 and 4 decrease, and the proportion of the cycle occupied by REM sleep tends to increase with REM. episodes occurring late in the night having more eye movement, bursts than REM episodes occurring early in the night.
Most models of sleep regulation have implicated the monoaminergic and cholinergic systems and the importance of inhibitor}’ GABAergic mechanisms in sleep regulation is well established:’ Since dysfunction of these neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in anxiety disorders, it is no wonder that one of the chief complaints of anxiety disorder patients relates to sleep alteration.
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How Much Sleep Do You Need
How much sleep you need depends on your age, physical activity levels, and general health.;
- Children and teenagers need 910 hours of sleep a night. Younger children tend to go to sleep earlier and wake earlier. As children grow into teenagers, they seem to get tired later and sleep in later.
- Adults need around 8 hours sleep each night. We tend to need less sleep, as we get older.
These are some general guidelines. If you are tired during the day, you may need more sleep.
The Link Between Sleep Deprivation And Anxiety In Children
When you dont get enough sleep, how do you feel? If youre like most people, sleepiness makes you feel grouchy, irritable, prone to anxiety, and easily frustrated. Even when youre normally even-tempered, not getting enough sleep can turn you into someone rather unpleasant to be around.;
The same goes for children. How many times have you chalked up your kids behavior to being tired? Weve all been around little ones who are in desperate need of a nap, and their temper tantrums, defiance, and inability to control their emotions. In most cases, a few hours of rest helps little ones return to their normal, sweet selves. But what happens when children have trouble sleeping on a regular basis and dont get as much rest as they need?;
Although much of the discussion of sleep deprivation among children focuses on the physical effects, we cant overlook the mental health impact that not getting enough sleep can have on young people. Recent research has uncovered a possible link between sleep deprivation in childhood and a higher risk of developing anxiety and depression later in life.; At the same time, sleep deprivation is often linked to mood and behavioral disorders in children, with those disorders keeping children from getting adequate sleep. Ultimately, its a chicken or egg conundrum: Does sleep deprivation lead to anxiety in children, or does anxiety cause sleep deprivation?;
Defining Sleep Deprivation
Signs of sleep deprivation
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Why Is It So Hard To Sleep When You Have Anxiety
Lets start with a little about how sleep works.
Sleep happens by balancing two forces that oppose each other. The first force is called sleep pressure. Basically, the longer you are up, the stronger this force becomes. If you are up for 16 hours, youll be tired. After 24 hours of being awake, sleep is more likely. And after 72 hours, it becomes difficult to stay awake.
The second force resists sleep pressure by pushing you awake. This force is an alerting signal that cycles based on an internal clock. It gets stronger as the day progresses and then is supposed to drop off at night. When this force drops in the evening, all the sleep pressure you built up during the day pushes you to sleep.
So how does anxiety affect this? The alerting signal force runs off many of the same neurochemicals anxiety uses. This is likely a great adaptive trait that aided our survival in the past. Imagine you were being chased by a pack of wolves. That would be a really bad time to go to sleep. Anytime you feel anxious, worried or threatened, the alerting signal gets stronger. Its your brains way of saying, If this is a threat, you should stay awake and deal with it.
The Impact Of Sleepiness On Mood And Mental Health
Lack of sleep can alter your mood significantly. It causes irritability and anger and may lessen your ability to cope with stress. According to the NSF, the âwalking tiredâ are more likely to sit and seethe in traffic jams and quarrel with other people. Sleep-deprived people polled by the NSF were also less likely than those who sleep well to exercise, eat healthfully, have sex, and engage in leisure activities because of sleepiness.
âOver time, impaired memory, mood, and other functions become a chronic way of life,â says Siebern. âIn the long term, this can affect your job or relationships.â
Chronic sleepiness puts you at greater risk for depression. They are so closely linked that sleep specialists arenât always sure which came first in their patients. âSleep and mood affect each other,â says Verceles. âItâs not uncommon for people who donât get enough sleep to be depressed or for people who are depressed to not sleep well enough.â
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How To Manage Anxiety And Get A Good Nights Sleep
Stress and anxiety are some of the most common reasons people toss and turn at night. Surveys estimate that about 24% to 36%of people with insomnia have an anxiety disorder, and these 2 problems can feed off each other.;
If your anxiety is interfering with your sleep, it can seem like a waking nightmare. But there are a number of treatments to help you get some shuteye again.;
Sleepiness Makes You Forgetful
Trying to keep your memory sharp? Try getting plenty of sleep.
In 2009, American and French researchers determined that brain events called Ã¢â¬Åsharp wave ripplesÃ¢â¬ï¿½ are responsible for consolidating memory. The ripples also transfer learned information from the hippocampus to the neocortex of the brain, where long-term memories are stored. Sharp wave ripples occur mostly during the deepest levels of sleep.
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Stalked By Chronic Nightmares
Chronic nightmares are another troublesome sleep disorder that can cause fear, says Shelby Harris, PsyD, CBSM, director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program at the Montefiore Medical Centerâs Sleep-Wake Disorders Center in New York City. Children are especially vulnerable, but adults – especially those who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder — experience nightmares, too.
Joni Aldrich, 57, of Winston-Salem, N.C., began to dread sleep after she lost her husband to brain cancer four years ago. After he had a seizure, she had to make the difficult decision to suspend treatment, an experience that traumatized her.
Every night, she had nightmares of him begging her to help him, but she couldnât. She would awaken shaking. Aldrich finally got help from a counselor and began taking an anti-anxiety medication to help her sleep. âI still take the anti-anxiety medication in a very low dose, because I fear the results otherwise,â says Aldrich, CEO of Cancer Lifeline Publications. âEven one of those nightmares wouldn’t be worth it. And, I still go to bed later than I should just to make sure that I’m really tired.â
Sitting On The Couch All Day
You might not believe there is a connection between your mood and your physical activity, but research shows that exercise plays a role in your mental health. Even just 10 minutes of exercise can temporarily alleviate your mood, and regular vigorous exercise can reduce your likeliness of developing anxiety and depression by 25 percent, according to the ADAA.
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Sleep Boosts Mental Wellbeing
Given that a single sleepless night can make you irritable and moody the following day, it’s not surprising that chronic sleep debt may lead to long-term mood disorders like clinical depression and generalised anxiety disorder in adults.
When people with anxiety or depression were surveyed to calculate their sleeping habits, it turned out that most of them slept for less than 6 hours a night.