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Can Sleep Apnea Cause High Blood Pressure

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How Sleep Apnea And High Blood Pressure Are Linked

HBP 020- How is snoring and sleep apnea linked to High Blood Pressure

For the estimated 25 million people in the U.S. who suffer from sleep apnea, poor sleep is a nightly occurrence. While the fogginess, headache, and daytime fatigue that follows a restless night is to be expected, there are other serious health risks that can accompany sleep apnea, especially if left untreated. Sleep apnea and high blood pressure are one of the most common links, affecting all systems of the body . Heres what you should know.

Eveningmorning Differences In Bp

Both gender and hypertension status affected the eveningmorning difference in BP. Nonhypertensive women had higher evening than morning systolic and diastolic BP, whereas in non-HT men evening systolic BP values were greater than morning and the reverse was found for diastolic BP. In HT men, both systolic and diastolic BP were higher in the morning than the evening, whereas in HT women only diastolic BP was higher in the morning than the evening. Thus, in three of the four BP measurements women had higher evening than morning values, whereas in men this was inverted: three of the four measurements were higher in the morning than the evening.

Sleep Apnea And High Blood Pressure: 5 Facts You Should Know

Sleep apnea causes a blockage to your airway during sleep, resulting in disrupted breathing and reduced oxygen intake. With obstructive sleep apnea, the problem originates in the throat muscles. Central sleep apnea, on the other hand, is caused by a problem with the brain signals that help control breathing. It√Ęs also possible for a person to have both of these types of sleep apnea. But is the condition linked to high blood pressure? Read on for 5 facts about the connections between sleep apnea and hypertension.

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What Are The Possible Outcomes If Left Untreated

Sleep apnea is a significant condition that can lead to numerous lasting health risks. Left unattended, it can result in high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and also stroke.

If you have actually been experiencing the adhering to symptoms, you should consult your physician for a complete medical examination:

  • Unexplained daytime drowsiness
  • Failure to concentrate or assume clearly
  • Irritability and also short temper
  • Morning migraines

The medical term for sleep apnea is hypopnea. Over time, this can result in excessive daytime drowsiness and also other hazardous results such as high blood pressure or heart disease. Effect On Blood Pressure Of Oral Appliance Therapy For Sleep Apnea Syndrome VitalSleep

Can Sleep Apnea Cause High Blood Pressure


The link between sleep apnea and high blood pressure plays out in the heart but also stands on its own as a dangerous complication.

When we sleep, our blood pressure usually drops between ten and 20% of its daytime rate. Not so for those who suffer from sleep apnea. The stress that occurs when the body is repeatedly deprived of oxygen at night causes blood pressure to rise by as much as 20% every night. Just like the heart remembers the oxidative stress, so too, does the blood pressure. Even just one apneic episode makes it harder for the body to regulate blood pressure.

An estimated 30 to 50% of people with high blood pressure also have sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is most common in patients with resistant hypertension that has not responded to treatments.

Glen Foster, an assistant professor of health and exercise science and researcher on a study that further proved sleep apneas effects on all of the bodys systems, noted that:

study shows this condition has an impact on the cardiovascular system that can begin within a single day. After just six hours of fluctuating oxygen levels, similar to what happens with sleep apnea, the bodys ability to regulate blood pressure is impaired. These changes occurred almost immediately in healthy young adults who were not experiencing the cumulative effects years of sleep apnea could bring about.

In other words, sleep apnea and hypertension are linked from the very first night of poor sleep.

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What Happens When You Stop Breathing

When you stop breathing, your heart rate also tends to drop the longer your body is deprived of oxygen. Then, your involuntary reflexes cause you to startle awake at the end of that period of not breathing. When this occurs, your heart rate tends to accelerate quickly and your blood pressure rises.

These are changes that take place acutely when you stop breathing. However, your body starts to experience chronic effects if you experience frequent apnea. Data suggests increased risk, particularly when you stop breathing roughly 30 times or more per hour. But there is likely a risk at even lower frequency rates.

For example, your blood pressure tends to go up, your heart walls thicken due to increased workload and the structure of your heart changes. It tends to become stiffer and less flexible because there are more fibrous cells growing in between the muscle cells.

All of those things increase the risk that you can have either atrial or ventricular arrhythmias. They also tend to reduce the function of the heart so that its less efficient at pumping blood.

The Stages Of Sleep Apnea Consisting Of How It Impacts The Body And Life Of An Individual

Sleep apnea is a problem where breathing stops for durations during the evening. It can be triggered by lots of things, such as weight gain, chronic snoring, or alcohol consumption.

The process of sleep apnea is burglarized four phases: Obstructive Sleep Apnea , Central Sleep Apnea , Mixed Sleep Apnea , and Complex Sleep Apnea . Each stage has its own collection of problems that an individual will face.

Obstructive sleep apnea is one of the most usual sort of sleep apnea and also the only kind that can be remedied with surgical procedure. In this kind, patients have issues taking a breath due to a blockage in their air passage, which typically takes place when they are resting in the evening. The sensation of not taking a breath well enough deeply influences the quality of sleep, leading to dazzling desires that usually entail talking, consuming, or running. Effect On Blood Pressure Of Oral Appliance Therapy For Sleep Apnea Syndrome VitalSleep

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Does Sleep Apnea Treatment Help High Blood Pressure

Thankfully, yes! Research indicates that treating sleep apnea can lead to dramatic improvements for those suffering from hypertension. One of the most common and effective treatments for OSA patients, CPAP therapy continuous positive airway pressure not only improves sleep quality, but also improves blood pressure in those with hypertension.

One study, led by Dr. Claudia Korcarz of the University of Wisconsins Atherosclerosis Imaging Research Program in 2014, looked at the impact CPAP machines have on blood pressure. The results showed CPAP therapy dramatically reduced high blood pressure in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

After three months of CPAP treatment, OSA patients who used their machine for approximately 6 hours each night reported both reduced hypertension and increased artery size.

Two more observations from the study also pointed to how important positive airway pressure was in regulating hypertension. Namely, participants who stopped using their CPAP machines had blood pressure readings begin to increase after only one week.

Participants who didnt stop treatment completely, but also didnt follow their CPAP treatment consistently, demonstrated no significant improvements in hypertension. These participants averaged about 2.5 hours of use each night or less.

Resistant Hypertension And Obstructive Sleep Apnea

How the Gastric Sleeve Surgery Can Help Relieve Diabetes, High Blood Pressure and Sleep Apnea

Akram Khan

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland OR & Portland VA Medical Center, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, UHN67, Portland, Oregon 97239-3098, USA

2Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland OR & Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR 97239, USA


1. Introduction

Hypertension is a modifiable, highly prevalent, risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and renal dysfunction worldwide and is increasing in incidence . During 20052008, approximately 68 million United States adults aged 18 years had HTN . Of these adults, 48 million were receiving pharmacologic treatment and 31 million had their condition controlled. Poor control of HTN, which was noted in 38 million of adults with HTN, can be due to a multitude of reasons these include dietary indiscretions with sodium or alcohol, nonadherence to a drug-treatment plan, inadequate dosages of medications, drug-induced hypertension, and secondary causes of hypertension as follows.

Secondary causes of resistant hypertension:obstructive sleep apnearenal parenchymal diseaserenal artery stenosis primary aldosteronismCushings diseasehyperparathyroidismcoarctation of aortapheochromocytomaintracranial tumors.

2. Resistant Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

3. Pathogenic Mechanisms Linking Resistant Hypertension with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

3.1. Hyperalderstronism
3.2. Increased Sympathetic Tone
3.4. Obesity

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Stick To A Regular Sleep Schedule

Going to bed and waking up at roughly the same times every day helps you to get the right kind of sleep. You need to experience the full cycle of deep- and lighter-stage sleep to feel well rested. A regular sleeping schedule also prevents you from getting overtired, which can make sleep apnea symptoms worse.

How Is Sleep Apnea Diagnosed

If your doctor determines that you have symptoms suggestive of sleep apnea, you may be asked to have a sleep evaluation with a sleep specialist or may order an overnight sleep study to objectively evaluate for sleep apnea.

  • Testing includes an overnight sleep study called a polysomnogram . A PSG is performed in a sleep laboratory under the direct supervision of a trained technologist. During the test, a variety of body functions, such as the electrical activity of the brain, eye movements, muscle activity, heart rate, breathing patterns, air flow, and blood oxygen levels are recorded at night during sleep. After the study is completed, the number of times breathing is impaired during sleep is tallied and the severity of the sleep apnea is graded.
  • For adults, a Home Sleep Test can sometimes be performed instead. This is a modified type of sleep study that can be done in the comfort of home. It records fewer body functions than PSG, including airflow, breathing effort, blood oxygen levels and snoring to confirm a diagnosis of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea.

An HST is not appropriate to be used as a screening tool for patients without symptoms. Its not used for patients with significant medical problems . Its also not used for patients who have other sleep disorders in addition to the suspected obstructive sleep apnea.

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What You Need To Know About How Sleep Apnea Affects Your Heart

Snoring can keep you awake, ruin your sleep cycle and your daily rhythm, even harm your relationships. But more than being just an annoyance, snoring may bring about life-threatening consequences.If youve ever awakened yourself with a sudden snore or if your partner nudges you awake to get you to turn over its possible you could be affected by sleep apnea, which is associated with high blood pressure, arrhythmia, stroke and heart failure.

Treating Your Sleep Apnea Can Also Help Treat High Blood Pressure

Researchers ID Potential Cause of Elevated Nighttime Blood ...

As your breathing improves and your oxygen levels stabilize in response to treatment for sleep apnea, your blood pressure may also get better. While you should always speak with your doctor before adjusting your medications, some people are able to reduce their intake of blood pressure medications following treatment for sleep apnea.

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Getting Tested For Sleep Apnoea

If a GP thinks you might have sleep apnoea, they may refer you to a specialist sleep clinic for tests.

At the clinic, you may be given devices that check things like your breathing and heartbeat while you sleep.

You’ll be asked to wear these overnight so doctors can check for signs of sleep apnoea.

You can usually do this at home, but sometimes you may need to stay in the clinic overnight.

The test can show if you have sleep apnoea and how severe it is. This is based on how often your breathing stops while you sleep .

Your AHI score shows how severe your sleep apnoea is:

  • AHI of 5 to 14 mild
  • AHI of 15 to 30 moderate
  • AHI over 30 severe

Do Different Antihypertensive Drug Classes Have Different Effects On Osas

Different antihypertensive drug classes may have different effects on the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of OSAS-related hypertension. However, the few studies that have comparatively assessed the BP-lowering effects of different drug classes in OSAS have had small sample sizes, and their statistical power has limited consistent conclusions. In a randomized study assessing the effects of different classes of antihypertensive drugs on office and ambulatory BP levels in patients with hypertension and OSAS, no significant differences between drug classes were observed in their ability to reduce office and daytime ambulatory BP levels. However, treatment with -blockers was more effective at reducing nighttime ambulatory BP than the administration of other compounds, most likely because of their effects on sympathetic activation. In general, however, no consistent evidence has shown superior antihypertensive efficacy for any antihypertensive drug in OSA patients. The long-term effects of treatment with different antihypertensive agents on hypertension severity in OSAS have not been systematically addressed in clinical trials. Evidence is therefore still needed to identify preferred compounds for an adequate BP control in this group of high-risk patients.

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What Is The Connection Between Sleep Apnea And Hypertension

In addition to the other health conditions hypertension contributes to, high blood pressure can also make sleep apnea symptoms worse, and vice versa. These two conditions have a cyclical effect upon each other, which is concerning if you happen to have both.

Obstructive sleep apnea restricts your breathing by blocking your airways. The blocked airway restricts how much oxygen enters the body, which puts added stress on your cardiovascular system.

In whats known as blood pressure dipping, blood pressure can lower between 10 and 20 percent each night in healthy individuals. Those with obstructive sleep apnea experience dips of less than 10 percent, which puts them at higher cardiovascular risk.

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Sleep Apnea And Blood Pressure

Hypertension 101 – Sleep/Rest

Sleep apnea and blood pressure can be thought of as a linked cycle. As you have seen, high blood pressure is a risk factor for sleep apnea. The reverse is also true: sleep apnea can raise hypertension risk.

The NSF explains how sleep apnea can cause high blood pressure and other cardiovascular risks. While you are sleeping, you may temporarily stop breathing due to a blockage in your airway. This results in less oxygen in your body.

Your brain realizes that oxygen is inadequate and tries to correct the situation. Since blood is the carrier of oxygen to the cells in your body, your brains compensation strategy is to increase blood flow in your blood vessels. This does increase the oxygen supply, but it does something else: it increases blood pressure and can cause high blood pressure headaches.

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Sleep Apnea And Blood Pressure: The Whole Story

Are sleep apnea and high blood pressure related? Can obstructive sleep apnea cause hypertension? Do people with sleep apnea have improvement in their blood if they use continuous positive airway pressure ? Read on to find the answers to these questions and more.

In order to explain the high blood pressure and sleep apnea connection, let’s first define a few key concepts.

Exactly How I Took Care Of Sleep Apnea

I have experienced sleep apnea for the past 10 years. It was noisy as well as uneasy, and it took away my sleep. Now, not only do I sleep well at night, yet I likewise wake up refreshed in the morning! Effect On Blood Pressure Of Oral Appliance Therapy For Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Every night I lay in bed for an hour prior to I might fall asleep. This is a tiny gadget that aids me breathe through my mouth while I am asleep, which eliminates sleep apnea signs and symptoms. On the very first evening, I experienced an unparalleled feeling of real rest because I might get a full evenings sleep and remainder.

Please do not hesitate to share this evaluation on your website or social media sites account to help people like me that deal with this problem! Effect On Blood Pressure Of Oral Appliance Therapy For Sleep Apnea Syndrome VitalSleep

Mild obstructive sleep apnea might not disrupt your nighttime breathing sufficient to trigger significant daytime troubles like excessive daytime drowsiness. There are 2 methods to detect sleep apnea: polysomnography as well as house sleep tests. Obstructive sleep apnea is the most usual type of sleep apnea as well as the only kind that can be corrected with surgical procedure. Sleep apnea is a problem that involves stops briefly in breathing or shallow breaths while resting. Sleep apnea is usually undiagnosed due to the fact that signs and symptoms are usually misinterpreted as various other issues, such as sleeplessness or stress and anxiety.

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Sleep Apnea Creates Norepinephrine Spikes In The Body

When your airway is blocked or constricted at night when youre asleep, your body must find a way to open up the airway so you can breathe. It does this by releasing norepinephrine, also sometimes referred to as adrenaline. Norepinephrinenorepi is the main awake neurotransmitter in the brain, and it arouses the brain to signal the throat to open up and let air in.

Although most people dont actually wake up, the arousal is enough to increase the muscle tone in the throat and return it to how it normally is during the day. Unfortunately, the norepinephrine release also creates a fight or flight response in your body that increases your heart rate, as well as your blood pressure.

Its release is so effective at raising blood pressure in the body, norepinephrine is used in the ICU to treat people in shock and at risk of death for low blood pressure. This is because its the most powerful agent we know of to increase blood pressure.

The more frequently you have these respiratory events at night, the more norepinephrine youre going to release, and the more your blood pressure will rise. This can make keeping blood pressure under control exceedingly difficult if you have undiagnosed sleep apnea or arent properly treated.

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