Tiredness Leads To Gastrointestinal Issues
Regular sleep loss makes you more likely to develop both inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, which affects an estimated 10-15% of people in North America. Patients with Crohn’s disease have been found to be twice as likely to experience a relapse when they don’t get enough sleep.
Sleep Apnea Causes Brain Damage And Memory Loss
Sleep apnea is one of the largest causes of tiredness, with roughly one in 10 adults suffering from the condition. Dizziness, memory loss, forgetfulness, and cognitive problems are all common symptoms associated with the condition. However, these symptoms are not simply due to being tired. They can actually be symptoms of brain damage caused by sleep apnea.
Numerous studies have linked sleep apnea to brain damage. In one study, people with sleep apnea were found to have 20% smaller mammillary bodies, which are associated with memory. In another study, people with sleep apnea were found to have a reduced concentration of gray matter in their brains, which is responsible for processing information. These are only a few of the studies that have found a link between sleep apnea and brain damage.
Brain damage can easily be responsible for memory loss, slowed thinking, and other cognitive symptoms. Unfortunately, sleep apnea brain damage symptoms do not get better with more sleep. In fact, if sleep apnea is not treated, brain damage can progressively worsen.
While it may seem strange that sleep apnea can cause brain damage, there is a clear cause-and-effect relationship for why this damage occurs. When we stop breathing for prolonged or repeated periods of time, we are not breathing in oxygen. This causes oxygen levels in our blood to drop.
Library Preparation And Sequencing
Total RNA was extracted and evaluated using the previous method. The sequencing library was generated by using the mRNA-seq Library Prep Kit for Illumina , following the manufacturer’s protocols. In brief, mRNA was separated by Capture Beads, then the isolation mRNA was fragmented with the Frag/Prime Buffer. The cDNA was synthesized using the first Strand Mix, and the second Strand/End Mix. The cDNA was connected with adapters, sorted by fragment, and enriched with PCR. The sequencing of libraries was performed by an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform .
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Sleep Deprivation Activates Tlr4 Signaling After Sah
To investigate the possible molecular mechanism underlying our data, we performed immunofluorescence staining using the TLR4 antibody, and we found that sleep deprivation increased the expression of TLR4 after SAH, especially in neurons . The results of RT-PCR showed that sleep deprivation significantly increased the mRNA levels of both TLR4 and MyD88 after SAH. As shown in , the increased expression of TLR4 and MyD88 protein induced by SAH was further enhanced by sleep deprivation.
Sleep deprivation activates TLR4 signaling after SAH. Immunofluorescence staining shows that sleep deprivation increased TLR4 expression in neurons after SAH. Scale bar, 50 Î¼m. RT-PCR show that sleep deprivation increased the mRNA levels of TLR4 and MyD88 after SAH. Western blot shows that sleep deprivation increased the expression of TLR4 and MyD88 after SAH. The data was represented as means Â± SEM. #p< 0.05 vs. Sham group, *p< 0.05 vs. SAH group.
Like Driving Drunk Driving Tired Can Lead To More Car Accidents
Drowsy driving is often compared to drunk driving: You really shouldn’t do either.
“Motor vehicle accidents related to fatigue, drowsy driving, and falling asleep at the wheel are particularly common, but often underestimated,” one review concluded.
Pilots, truck drivers, medical residents, and others required to stay awake for long periods “show an increased risk of crashes or near misses due to sleep deprivation,” it said.
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Longest Periods Without Sleep
Randy Gardner holds the scientifically documented record for the longest period of time a human being has intentionally gone without sleep not using stimulants of any kind. Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours , breaking the previous record of 260 hours held by Tom Rounds of Honolulu.LCDR John J. Ross of the U.S. Navy Medical Neuropsychiatric Research Unit later published an account of this event, which became well known among sleep-deprivation researchers.
Claims of total sleep deprivation lasting years have been made several times, but none are scientifically verified. Claims of partial sleep deprivation are better documented. For example, Rhett Lamb of St. Petersburg, Florida was initially reported to not sleep at all, but actually had a rare condition permitting him to sleep only one to two hours per day in the first three years of his life. He had a rare abnormality called an ArnoldChiari malformation where brain tissue protrudes into the spinal canal and the skull puts pressure on the protruding part of the brain. The boy was operated on at All Children’s Hospital in St. Petersburg in May 2008. Two days after surgery he slept through the night.
You Need Sleep For Muscles To Get Stronger Without It Muscle Atrophy Occurs
Lack of sleep causes hormonal changes that make it harder for your body to build muscle and heal. This makes it more difficult to recover from muscle damage caused by exercise, and it worsens conditions related to muscle atrophy.
Other research has found that the reverse is also true that during sleep, your body releases growth hormone and heals damage. That’s why fitness advocates will always point out that sleep is an essential part of getting in shape.
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Increased Risk Of Accidents
A lack of sleep can limit the ability to:
- pay attention
- react quickly
- make decisions
A person who gets too little sleep may have a higher risk of drowsy driving, which can lead to accidents. In one survey, adults in the U.S. said that they had fallen asleep at the wheel within the last month. People should not drive or use machinery if they feel drowsy.
often help . A person can:
- Try going to bed and waking up at the same times every day, even on the weekends, with the goal of establishing a routine.
- Avoiding eating 23 hours before bedtime.
- After trying to fall asleep for 20 minutes, get up and read, then try again later.
- Get regular exercise during the day.
- Keep the bedroom quiet, dark, and cool.
- Turn off electronic devices and keep them away from the sleeping area.
- Limit the consumption of caffeine and alcohol, especially close to bedtime.
- Avoid tobacco use.
- Use a mouth guard to manage bruxism.
If these measures do not help, a person should see a healthcare provider, especially if getting too little sleep is affecting the quality of life.
Some people find that devices help, including mouth guards, white noise machines, anti-snore devices, sleep trackers, wedge pillows, and other products. These are available for purchase online.
However, there is no guarantee that any of these will work.
A doctor, possibly a sleep specialist, starts by asking about:
Useful information can include:
How Substance Abuse Damages The Brain
Researchers can see inside a persons brain using medical scans. The team scanned the brains of people in the throes of addiction and in people who did not struggle with addiction. They found that the structure and chemistry of the brain show clear signs of addiction.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain that is part of the reward pathway. This chemical affects the areas of the brain that are associated with pleasure and decision making. Researchers followed the dopamine through the brains of people who abused substances using PET scan technology. The researchers found that there were low levels of dopamine in the areas of the brain that controlled repetitive behavior and risk-taking. They reasoned that this is why the addicted person compulsively uses drugs and alcohol.
In another study, researchers used MRI scans to study the brains of people with substance use disorders. This study gave further insight into why people battling addiction tend to relapse. The MRI scans showed that the area of the brain that stimulates cravings was highly active in individuals who abuse substances. It was especially active when they were exposed to certain triggers.
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Establishment Of The Bbb Model In Vitro And Measurement Of Bbb Permeability
The mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells bEnd.3 were cultured in an endothelial cell medium with an endothelial cell growth supplement , 10% FBS, 1% fetal bovine serum, and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. To set up a BBB model in vitro, astrocytes were seeded on the bottom of the collagen-coated Transwell chamber with 5.0 × 105 cells/chamber, the Transwell chamber was inverted and the cells were cultured for 4 h, the chamber was then flipped and placed into six-well plate. After 7 days of culture, 2.5 × 105 cells/cm2 BMECs were added to the top of the Transwell chamber. The astrocyte culture medium was added into the vascular endothelial cells for co-culture. The barrier integrity of BMECs was evaluated using transendothelial electrical resistance values and the permeability of sodium fluorescein . After incubation for 1 week, the culture medium was changed to a serum-free medium, and 100 g/ml of NaF and donor pool was added. After 2 h incubation at 37°C, 100 l of the culture medium was removed to determine that the concentrations of the fluorescein in samples were detected by a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The BBB permeability was calculated as the reference. The integrity of the monolayers was assessed by TEER with a Millicell-Electrical Resistance System . The expression of tight junction proteins in BMECs were detected using Western bolt. One insert of 6-well plates were used for each experiment.
Effects Of Sleep Loss On Neurogenesis
Across most of the adult lifespan, new neurons and glia are produced in specific brain regions. The production of new neurons can be influenced by modifying health and lifestyle, including sleep time. Guzman-Marin et al. discovered that long-term sleep deprivation in adult rats significantly suppressed the production of new progenitor cells in the hippocampus, relative to control animals and that this occurred without raising corticosterone levels . Moreover, adrenalectomized rats, lacking corticosterone, also demonstrate sleep deprivation suppression of neurogenesis . While the effects of sleep loss on neurogenesis are independent of corticosterone, sleep loss suppression of neurogenesis may require interleukin-1 . Specifically, mice lacking receptors for IL-1 do not reduce neurogenesis in response to sleep loss . Whether this is a direct or indirect effect has not been ascertained. In a follow-up experiment, the Guzman-Marin et al. group established that sleep loss specifically affected the generation of new mature neurons . A similar effect on neurogenesis is observed with sleep fragmentation where both 4 and 7days of continuous sleep fragmentation suppressed neurogenesis, while 1day did not . Neurogenesis is critical for optimal hippocampal learning and memory, and 3days of sleep restriction reduces the adult neurogenesis response to learning .
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Independance Motivation And Hope
My son Sharat suffered a severe traumatic brain injury 23 years ago leaving him with Aphasia and right sided weakness from his vision,hearing to his limbs. The lockdown in June was a great challenge for him as his caregivers stopped coming, no gym workouts and no outings for a coffee.
Being his mother and primary carer I feared that this was a hotbed for depression. I scoured the net and chanced upon FlintRehab. As there was a trial period it was safe for us to risk getting it across to Auckland.
His OT checked it out and felt that it was ideal. I can honestly second this.
He enjoys working on it and now after three months can do it on his own. His left hand helps his right hand. The FitMi video explains and shows him what to do, it gives him marks and applauds him too!!
He has to use both sides of his brain. The caregivers are OT students who returned enjoy working on it with him.
In three months there motivation built up in him with a drive to use his right hand. There is definitely a slight improvement in his right hand.
This encourages him as well as the caregivers to try harder.His overall mood is upbeat. He enjoys it, so much so, that it doesnt matter if his caregiver is away.
FitMi is a blessing.
Areas Of Brain Damaged By Sleep Apnea
We know that sleep apnea can cause brain damage, but how much damage can it actually cause? Sleep apnea can actually affect several different regions in the brain, leading to widespread brain damage.
There are five common areas of the brain that are damaged by sleep apnea.
1. Mammillary bodies: Mammillary bodies are actually located on the underside of the brain. They are associated with memory. They can be up to 20% smaller in people with sleep apnea. Damage to mammillary bodies can result in memory loss and forgetfulness.
2. Hippocampus: The hippocampus is not only one of the regions damaged in Alzheimers disease but it can also be damaged by sleep apnea. This region of the brain is responsible for processing information and memory.
3. Cerebellum: The cerebellum is responsible for controlling motor coordination and blood pressure regulation. It can also play a part in language, attention, and other cognitive functions.
4. Insular cortex: The insular cortex is responsible for wide-ranging cognitive functions. It plays a part in regulating our nervous system and controls our pain receptors. It also plays a role in our emotions and mood, affecting how we feel.
5. Ventrolateral medulla: This region of the brain regulates our blood pressure. When it is damaged, the result can be cardiac problems, including heart arrhythmia, problems with heart rate rhythm, and other potentially serious symptoms.
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So It’s No Surprise That Sleepiness Makes People Clumsier
Most people notice that when they’re sleepy, they’re not at the top of their game. One study found that one sleepless night contributed to a 20-32% increase in the number of errors made by surgeons. People playing sports that require precision like shooting, sailing, or cycling also make more mistakes when they’ve been awake for extended periods.
Prognosis Of Anoxic Or Hypoxic Brain Injuries
Projecting the recovery and care for anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries is difficult because each case is unique. A full recovery from severe anoxic or hypoxic brain injury is rare, but many patients with mild anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries are capable of making a full or partial recovery. Furthermore, symptoms and effects of the injury are dependent on the area of the brain that was affected by the lack of oxygen.
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Sleep Apnea Changes The Shape Of The Brain
The mental symptoms of sleep apnea are more serious than the temporary grogginess caused by drowsiness. During an apnea the subject actually stops breathing, which starves the brain of oxygen. This duress, paired with chronic fatigue, can cause physical, measurable brain damage.
Researchers at UCLA compared the mammillary bodiesstructures in the brain that are important in memory storageof several adults suffering from sleep apnea with those of healthy people. They found that the bodies in the troubled sleepers were nearly 20% smaller than in their untroubled counterparts.
Furthermore, multiple studies have discovered a decrease in both gray and white matter in the brains of subjects with OSA. A study published in Sleep journal found significant reductions in gray matter concentrations in certain areas of the brain. This led principal investigator Doctor Seung Bong Hong of the Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in Seoul to conclude that Poor sleep quality and progressive brain damage induced by OSA could be responsible for poor memory, emotional problems, decreased cognitive functioning and increased cardiovascular disturbances. In 2008, a UCLA study found significant damage in the brains fiber pathways and structural alterations in its white matter, especially in areas that regulate mood, memory, and blood pressure.
Researchers Reverse The Cognitive Impairment Caused By Sleep Deprivation
— A research collaboration led by biologists and neuroscientists at the University of Pennsylvania has found a molecular pathway in the brain that is the cause of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation. Just as important, the team believes that the cognitive deficits caused by sleep deprivation, such as an inability to focus, learn or memorize, may be reversible by reducing the concentration of a specific enzyme that builds up in the hippocampus of the brain.
It is known that sleep deprivation can have cognitive consequences, including learning and memory deficits, but the mechanisms by which sleep deprivation affects brain function remain unknown. A particular challenge has been to develop approaches to reverse the impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive function.
The findings, reported in this week’s issue of the journal Nature, could present a new approach to treating the memory and learning deficits of insomnia. A molecular mechanism by which brief sleep deprivation alters hippocampal function is now identified in mice, involving the impairment of cyclic-AMP- and protein-kinase-A-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity, or readiness for cognitive function.
The study showed that mice deprived of sleep had increased levels of the enzyme PDE4 and reduced levels of the molecule cAMP, the latter of which is crucial in forming new synaptic connections in the hippocampus, a physiological hallmark of learning.
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Can You Catch Up On Sleep And Reverse The Damage
If you’re suffering from sleep deprivation, can you catch up on sleep? The answer is yes â for the most part. Why the qualifier? It depends if you’re suffering from acute or chronic sleep debt.
Weâll start by explaining the difference between acute and chronic sleep debt as well as the negative side effects of each. After that, weâll dive into the steps you can take to avoid sleep debt and catch up on sleep.