The Effects Of Sleep On Blood Pressure
The effects of sleep on blood pressure can be quite profound. In fact, several studies over the past decade have found a link between poor sleep quality and quantity and higher blood pressure.
For example, one study that followed hundreds of early-middle-aged people for six years found that when they got less sleep , or didnt sleep well, they were more likely to have higher blood pressure. Their statistics showed that roughly each hour of sleep that was missed equated to a third greater risk of having high blood pressure.
Other studies have found similar effects. There are many factors responsible for the effects of sleep on blood pressure. For one thing, sleep is important for processing stress hormones. So not getting enough good sleep can lead to lingering high levels of stress hormones, which can increase inflammation in the body , and narrow the arteries, increasing blood pressure.
. This explains why even mild sleep deprivation is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis.)
As well as the effects of sleep on blood pressure, not enough good sleep is also linked with greater risk of heart disease, obesity, diabetes, as well as cancer, depression, and memory and concentration problems. So its important to make sure youre getting enough.
Can I Reduce The Effects Of Sleep On Blood Pressure
The effects of sleep on blood pressure are biological, so theres not much you can do to change the actual effects of sleep on blood pressure.
However, as weve seen, how much you sleep, how you sleep and when you sleep can be seriously affected by our lifestyles so if you make a few changes, you can give yourself a good chance of getting better sleep and thus make sure the effects of sleep on blood pressure are good effects!
UPDATE: Research now shows that having a noontime nap is linked with lower blood pressure, and that this can help compensate for not getting enough sleep at night. So if you can make time for a little siesta, do so. More details here: how a nap can lower your blood pressure
Sleep Problem Associated With High Blood Pressure
Sleep apnea left untreated can lead to several health problems, including high blood pressure. What happens when someone has sleep apnea is, they experience pauses in their breathing many times per night. Some people have hundreds of episodes of apnea over the course of the night.
The pauses in breathing are brief, but they still lead to significant consequences. Oxygen levels drop. In response to the decreased oxygen level, the lungs and heart need to work harder, which causes blood pressure to increase.Over time, the elevation in blood pressure may not only occur during sleep. The repeated increases in blood pressure during sleep carry over during the day, causing hypertension most of the time. In fact, sleep apnea may be the culprit in many instances of hypertension.According to research published in the journal Hypertension, it is thought that about 50 percent of people that are diagnosed with high blood pressure also probably have obstructive sleep apnea. In some cases, sleep apnea is not diagnosed and is an underrecognized comorbidity.The good news is studies show that treating sleep apnea can decrease high blood pressure. According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, successful treatment for sleep apnea reduces arterial stiffness. Patients that were compliant with sleep apnea treatment for three months had a substantial reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Consequences of High Blood Pressure
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Does Sleep Apnea Affect Blood Pressure
Sleep apnea affects many of the complex systems of our bodies and is associated with other serious conditions like high blood pressure. Many people think sleep apnea is as simple as snoring, but its really much more than that.
When we sleep, all of our muscles relax, including those in the neck and throat. If you have excess neck tissue, this can put pressure on your airway and cause it to collapse. As your airway collapses, the path air takes to get to your lungs narrows and has to squeeze through instead of moving freely. This will cause you to snore or even temporarily stop breathing while you sleep up to hundreds of times each night.
Constantly depriving your body of oxygen each night has a tremendously negative impact on your body. Normally, your blood pressure falls at night. If you have sleep apnea, your blood pressure may not fall, which can lead to high blood pressure. Every time your oxygen level drops, this raises your blood pressure and causes an adrenaline surge. This puts increased stress on your heart because it has to work harder to normalize your blood pressure. The connection doesnt end there. High blood pressure can lead to other consequences like heart attack and stroke.
This blog post contains general information about medical conditions and potential treatments. It is not medical advice. If you have any medical questions, please consult your doctor.
Abnormal Blood Pressure Levels While Sleeping Increase Risk Of Heart Disease Stroke
- Nighttime blood pressure levels that are higher than daytime levels, as well as a pattern of blood pressure rising at night , were associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and heart failure.
- Even when blood pressure is well controlled during the day, patients who experienced extreme dips in their blood pressure while asleep had a significantly greater risk of stroke compared to those who had normal blood pressure while sleeping.
- Management of blood pressure while sleeping should be a key consideration for health care professionals to help optimize patient outcomes.
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DALLAS, Nov. 2, 2020 People who experience high blood pressure while sleeping are more likely to experience future cardiovascular disease especially heart failure, even when their daytime blood pressure is within normal ranges, according to new research published today in the American Heart Associations flagship journal Circulation.
Health care professionals typically use in-office and daytime blood pressure measurements to determine a patients hypertension medication needs and dosages. However, many patients may have undetected nocturnal hypertension high blood pressure while sleeping.
The analysis indicates:
This study was financially supported in part by a grant from the Foundation for the Development of the Community .
About the American Heart Association
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How Hypertension Is Affected By Sleep
There is a clear link between the amount of sleep someone gets and their risk of high blood pressure. In a recentstudyVerified SourceAmerican Academy of Sleep MedicineSociety focused on sleep medicine and disorders, and the AASM is who authorizes U.S. sleep medicine facilities.View sourceon the relationship between sleep duration and the risk of hypertension, researchers found those who slept less than 4 hours a night were at a much higher risk than those who slept 7 hours each night.
However, this study also found that sleeping too long can also increase your risk of high blood pressurethis issue can be avoided by getting the recommended amount of sleep each and every night, which varies from person to person.
In another study, researchers found that people who only slept six hours the previous night are shown to have higher blood pressure the next day as compared to those who had a great nights sleep. Continued lack of sleep can only compound this effect. Without proper sleep to revitalize your body, you could be stressing yourself without even realizing it until it is too late.
Dr. Michael Grandner, a clinical psychologist and Director of the Sleep and Health Research Program, says, Hypertension is a key cardiovascular risk factor. There are now many studies that have been able to show that insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality are related to the development of high blood pressure and other aspects of heart disease.
How Sleep Apnea Affects Blood Pressure
High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is a common health issue in which the amount of force that pumps blood through blood vessels is higher than normal. People with hypertension often dont have symptoms but learn they have high blood pressure during routine checks at a doctors office. If left untreated, high blood pressure puts a daily strain on the cardiovascular system which may lead to stroke, heart disease, and other conditions. Fortunately, managing hypertension with medication and lifestyle changes can reduce your risk for harmful health effects.
Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that causes numerous lapses in breathing during sleep. There are two types of sleep apnea: obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea . OSA is marked by episodes of airway collapse, which blocks airflow into the lungs and often causes snoring and gasping during sleep. In CSA, breathing lapses occur because of a lack of communication between the brain and the muscles involved in breathing.
Its important to understand the relationship between hypertension and sleep apnea because these two conditions affect one another, and treatment for sleep apnea can lower blood pressure in people who have both.
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Visit Your Doctor Regularly
Hypertension can get severe with time. If not taken care of, it can impact your career, social life, productivity, and eventually your life. Therefore, even as you use the tips highlighted above, be sure to visit your doctor as regularly as possible.
Your doctor will check your blood pressure to determine whether it is increasing, decreasing, or constant. They will also suggest better ways to combat the condition and bounce back to your normal life.
Osa And Resistant Hypertension
OSA is common in patients with resistant hypertension, which is defined as BP that remains uncontrolled with three or more medications. In a prospective evaluation of 41 patients with resistant hypertension, Logan et al found that 96% of the men and 65% of the women had significant OSA . In 71 consecutive subjects referred to the hypertension clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham for resistant hypertension, we found that 90% of the men and 77% of the women had OSA . As OSA severity increases, there is an increased need for additional BP medications that is, the more severe the OSA, the less likely BP is controlled with pharmacologic therapy.- A prospective, but uncontrolled CPAP trial demonstrated that CPAP use can have substantial antihypertensive benefit in patients with resistant hypertension. Logan et al reported that CPAP use after 2-month follow-up in 11 patients with resistant hypertension lowered nighttime systolic BP by 14.4±4.4 mm Hg and diastolic BP by 7.8±3.0 mm Hg.
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How Does Sleep Apnea Cause High Blood Pressure
Each time a person with OSA experiences airway collapse and briefly stops breathing during sleep, their sympathetic nervous system becomes activated and blood pressure rapidly spikes when they resume breathing. Sometimes, this sequence of pausing and resuming breathing can cause a person to wake from sleep. When a person wakes up after an OSA event, activation of the sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure levels escalate to an even greater degree.
Additionally, when sleep is disrupted by OSA symptoms, the body releases sympathetic nervous system hormones called catecholamines into the blood. Catecholamines are stress hormones that are majorly released by the adrenal glands. Examples of catecholamines include dopamine and epinephrine . High levels of catecholamines in the blood cause high blood pressure.
What Does Sleep Have To Do With High Blood Pressure
Your blood pressure directly responds to sleep loss along with a whole host of negative side effects. A 2010 study conducted amongst 538 middle-aged adults found that sleep deprivation was a reliable predictor of increased blood pressure levels. The results remained consistent even after being adjusted for age, race, sex, and presence of high blood pressure medication. In these cases, both shortened sleep duration and poor sleep quality contributed to the increase in blood pressure readings.
In part, sleep deprivations effects on the mental and emotional state shed light onto the forces at work. Without enough sleep, the brain becomes more sensitive to negative thoughts and feelings, which causes an increase in stress hormones like cortisol that naturally cause a rise in blood pressure.
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How Does High Blood Pressure Affect Your Sleep
There is a close relationship between lack of sleep and high blood pressure. For instance, if you dont get enough sleep, your body will not be able to regulate stress hormones, which will then lead to increased blood pressure.
It is important that you sleep between seven to eight hours a day as a way of preventing elevated blood pressure. Hypertension is a serious health condition that can lead to severe complications, such as heart attack and stroke, if not treated properly.
How Does Sleep Apnea Treatment Affect Blood Pressure
There are a number of treatment options for OSA. Treatment not only improves sleep quality but could also help manage hypertension. The most common and effective treatment is called continuous positive airway pressure .
CPAP treatment involves wearing a facemask attached to a machine that pumps air into the lungs at night. It works by preventing the airway from collapsing, which improves sleep quality in people affected by OSA. Studies investigating the effects of CPAP in patients with hypertension and OSA have shown that treatment with CPAP lowers blood pressure during the day and at night, especially in patients with severe OSA. CPAP also reduces catecholamine levels.
Some patients have a hard time adjusting to the CPAP facemask at night. Consistent, proper use of CPAP is important in order to effectively manage OSA and hypertension. Mouthpieces are one alternative to CPAP and are designed to help maintain an open airway during sleep. Research is needed to determine if mouthpieces also lower blood pressure in people who experience high blood pressure and OSA. Certain surgical procedures are also done to treat OSA in selected patients.
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The Link Between Sleep Deprivation And Hypertension
Many studies, involving hundreds of thousands of adults around the world, have confirmed a link between short sleep duration and high blood pressure. Why sleep duration affects blood pressure remains something of a mystery. Its possible the body requires a long sleep duration to adequately manage certain hormone levels that contribute to blood pressure control. Whatever the reason, the evidence suggests that habitually sleeping fewer than six hours per night raises your risk of developing hypertension.
Eating Healthy And Smart
Sleep isnt a luxury its a necessity you cant do without. Adequate sleep goes hand in hand with a healthy diet and regular exercise to control blood pressure. It might take time and effort to make the changes that can improve your sleep and lower your blood pressure, but the health benefits are definitely worth it.
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Managing Pain And Blood Pressure With Medication
Your doctor may also prescribe medications to lower blood pressure. They will often take into account any other existing health conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or kidney issues. Medications that manage blood pressure include the following:
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors:Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors help prevent the narrowing of blood vessels.
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers :These drugs relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure by blocking angiotensin II. This compound restricts blood flow and narrows arteries and veins.
- Calcium channel blockers: This medication prevents excessive calcium from constricting blood flow and increasing pressure.
- Diuretics:Diuretics remove extra water and sodium from the body.
- Beta-blockers:Beta-blockers lower blood pressure by lowering your heartbeat.
Risk Factors For Hypertension
Age is a common risk factor for hypertension, as well as gender and family history. And while its a common health condition among American adults, hypertension does not have any visible symptoms or signs of illness. This is why its sometimes called the silent killer.
Hypertension is strongly connected to conditions like heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and even erectile dysfunction. These conditions are also linked to sleep-disordered breathing, also referred to as sleep apnea. Research indicates up to 50% of people suffering from hypertension also have sleep apnea, which is why anyone struggling with high blood pressure can benefit from a sleep test.
The good news is that hypertension is highly treatable with a healthy diet, productive sleep habits, and exercise. If your hypertension doesnt respond well to these lifestyle changes or medication, getting a sleep test to see if you have undiagnosed sleep apnea is important.
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Could You Sleep Away High Blood Pressure
Resistant hypertension is defined as blood pressure that remains above a goal target when at least three medication therapies, including a diuretic, fail to control the blood pressure. This affects an estimated 13 percent of the population with high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. For those with sleep apnea, in addition to resistant hypertension, a new study finds patients who were treated with continuous positive airway pressure experienced a drop in blood pressure levels.
Lead researcher of the study, Dr. Miguel-Angel Martinez-Garcia, Polytechnic University Hospital in Valencia, said in a recent article The prevalence of sleep apnea in patients with resistant is very high. How common? Experts estimate three out of every four people with resistant hypertension also suffer from the obstructive sleep disorder. Treating sleep apnea with 12 weeks of CPAP use can help return the nocturnal blood pressure to normal levels. Long-term benefits have not been determined for sustained improvements, health outcomes and require additional studies.
More than Sleep Apnea
A Better Nights Rest
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