Diary Reports Of Rtis
The mean infection diary score as a summary measure of all reported upper and LRTIs was 0.0806, with similar values for men and women as well as younger and older individuals . The mean of the infection diary score for URTI is more than twofold higher than the respective score for LRTI. Higher infection diary scores were seen in association with comorbidities , obesity, and perceived stress .
Quality Versus Quantity Of Sleep
The quality of their day is what makes people who have insomnia different from people who typically sleep fewer hours or who have a different sleep disorder. With insomnia, you sleep so badly that you feel grouchy and perform poorly during the day. But it is possible to be a restless sleeper or to sleep less than 8 hours a night and yet get the amount of sleep you need. If you wake up refreshed with energy and are able to get things done during the day, then you are probably getting enough sleep.
Not getting enough sleep can affect your quality of life. It can lead to serious problems including household injuries, car crashes, anxiety, and depression. Talk with your doctor if you think that you have insomnia.
Top Ten Foods That Induce Insomnia
Sleep deprivation in America has become common among 41 million Americans, says the Center for Disease Control and Prevention .
Dietary factors that create chemicals can trigger insomnia. Therefore, it is essential to know what foods can contribute to a cornucopia of sleepless nights.
This list of the top ten foods to avoid before bed will help maintain a healthy diet and most importantly give the human body the much needed rest it deserves.
Oats contain the chemical melatonin that usually prepares the body for rest but its high soluble fiber content can have adverse effects reports Dr. Robert Kwok from Health Tap. When it is consumed before bed, it doesn’t have sufficient time to digest properly which can cause slow down digestion, causing heartburn and gas.
Most leafy greens are natural diuretics that can cause a person to experience frequent urination. The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse says that broccoli, cabbage, beans, cucumbers and garlic are hard to digest and can result in gas. This produce from Mother Earth is better if it’s consumed a few hours before bedtime.
7. Spicy foods.
6. High-carb or sugary foods.
5. Red meat and other proteins.
4. Greasy or fat filled foods.
3. Dark chocolate.
A key ingredient in dark chocolate is caffeine and with stimulants like theobromine, phenylethylamine and anadamide, it can get the heart racing says Live Strong.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Pneumonia
If you have pneumonia, youll have symptoms that are similar to having flu or a chest infection. Symptoms may develop gradually over a few days but can progress much faster.
The main symptom is coughing. You may feel generally unwell, weak and tired, and youll probably have at least one of these symptoms too:
- coughing up mucus that may become yellow or green
- a high temperature you might also sweat and shiver
- difficulty breathing or getting out of breath quicker than normal
- chest pain or discomfort
Even if you have pneumonia, you may not have all these symptoms.
How Is Pneumonia Diagnosed
Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and do a physical exam. He or she may order a chest X-ray and a complete blood count . This is usually enough for your doctor to know if you have pneumonia. You may need more tests if you have bad symptoms, are an older adult, or have other health problems. In general, the sicker you are, the more tests you may need.
Your doctor may also test mucus from your lungs to find out if bacteria are causing your pneumonia. Finding out what is causing your pneumonia can help your doctor choose the best treatment for you. However, often the organism can’t be found and a broad-spectrum antibiotic may be given.
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Association Of The Nlr With Pi
The inflammatory potential of insomnia might provide one mechanism linking suboptimal sleep with infection susceptibility. An elevated NLR has emerged as a marker of systemic inflammation showing association with chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, COPD, diabetes mellitus, and mortality in the general population . To test the hypothesis that NLR is increased in individuals with sleep disturbances, we explored the relationship between the NLR calculated from blood counts and PI in the AWIS cohort . In this study population, the overall mean NLR was 2.33 , slightly higher in men than in women . The mean NLR was higher for people with a RIS score more than 12 compared to those with lower RIS score however, the differences lacked statistical significance in the overall cohort and in women. In contrast, a significantly elevated NLR was observed in men with high compared to low RIS scores .
In conclusion, our hypothesis of higher levels of this proxy for inflammation in individuals affected by insomnia was only confirmed for men.
Can Breathing Vicks Vaporub Cause Pneumonia
The research paper, Exogenous lipid pneumonia related to long-term use of Vicks VapoRub® by an adult patient: a case report, was published in BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders. ELP is a rare condition that results from the aspiration or inhalation of material of animal, vegetable or mineral origin.
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Pulmonary Edema: Cause And Presentation:
Pulmonary edema usually indicates underlying systemic pathology like heart failure but may also be caused due to unknown causes or fluid overload states. Pulmonary edema is mostly caused when the fluid in the lungs cant drain out properly as seen in cases of heart failure. In cases of left heart failure the blood pools back into the lungs and causes massive collection of fluid thus causing breathing difficulty, cough and respiratory distress. Thus both pneumonia and pulmonary edema share similar clinical features. The essential difference being that pneumonia is an infectious cause. Pulmonary edema usually does not occur alone as the fluid overload state also causes loading of fluid in other parts of the body like liver and spleen and gives rise to an array of symptoms.
Can pneumonia cause pulmonary edema?
Yes. Pneumonia can cause pulmonary edema as the inflammatory state in pneumonia can cause leakage of fluid from the blood vessels and capillaries thus causing massive collection of fluid in the lungs that give an appearance like that of pulmonary edema.
Pneumonia can also be atypical which does not present with the usual signs and symptoms and can have very different presentation which includes
- Breakdown of red blood cells leading to anaemia
- Ataxia and movement disturbances
- Irritation of brain and neurological deficits.
- Rashes on the body
Similarities of pneumonia and pulmonary edema
Differences between pneumonia and pulmonary edema
Does Prednisone Cause Insomnia
Theoretically, using a corticosteroid like Prednisone for less than two weeks should reduce the frequency of its side-effects.
According to a 1984 study by Lozada F, Silverman S Jr, and Migliorati C, fluid retention and insomnia are the most frequent side-effects among those using Prednisone short-term.
Why does this happen?
As mentioned, Prednisone fights inflammation by acting upon the adrenal function. When a person is subjected to stress, his/her adrenal system is slowly exhausted. This system regulates the bodys fight-or-flight response. With exhaustion, the adrenal system stimulates the body, keeping the person awake.
The same thing happens under the effect of Prednisone. The result is not just missed sleep, but sleep of poor quality interspersed with bad dreams.
According to a 2016 study on Prednisone and sleep, by Lauren C Daniel, Yimei Li, et al, Prednisones impact on sleep in children is less significant than that of other corticosteroids like dexamethasone.
A 1993 study by R Turner and E Elson, flatly states that Steroids cause sleep disturbance. This study concludes that the effect of steroids on sleep is dose-dependent. Sleep disturbances can be alleviated by reducing the dosage.
In some cases, doctors cannot modify dosage. They can, however, have the patient take the full daily dose of Prednisone in the morning. Thus, the effects of the drug are less present by bedtime.
This is a Dream…
How Can You Handle Prednisone-induced Insomnia?
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Sleep Tips For Older Adults
Older adults, especially those living in nursing homes or who are cared for by others, often have ongoing sleep problems. It’s natural for your sleep patterns to change as you get older, but it doesn’t mean that you need less sleep or that the sleep you do get is enough.
There are things you can do to cope with changing sleep patterns as you get older, such as having familiar evening and nighttime routines.
The Bottom Line On Prednisone
Prednisone is a glucocorticoid, the efficacy of which is remarkable. It alleviates inflammation by suppressing the immune system. Some of its side effects are horrifying, though its benefits often outweigh them.
Doctors who prescribe this drug carefully weigh its benefits against its side-effects. Always tell your doctor what measures you intend to take to alleviate these side effects.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Insomnia
People experience insomnia differently. Some of the symptoms of insomnia are:
- having difficulty falling asleep
- waking a lot during the night
- waking up too early and being unable to go back to sleep
- not feeling refreshed when you wake up
Insomnia can lead to the following symptoms during the day:
- tension headaches
- feeling sleepy when sitting quietly
How To Treat A Pneumonia Cough
If youre uncomfortable, you should call your doctor, whether you suspect that you have pneumonia or not. A painful cough can be a sign of a range of health issues, and its really a good idea to get it checked out if its bothering you and isnt getting better, Dr. Gates says. You should also seek help ASAP if you have a high fever and significant shortness of breath, she says.
If your doctor diagnoses you with bacterial pneumonia, theyll likely prescribe an antibiotic to treat your infectionand your cough. If its viral and caught early, they may prescribe an anti-viral medication and, if its fungal, theyll likely have you take an antifungal medication, Dr. Casciari says. Of course, those medications treat the underlying infection and, while they should help you to feel better, it may take a little time for your cough to clear up.
In the meantime, doctors say there are a few things you can do to help your cough:
Just keep this in mind, per Dr. Gates: The cough probably wont get better until the actual pneumonia is treated.
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Ascertainment Of Sleep Habits
Subjects were asked to report their average sleep duration over a 24-h period with the following choices for response: < 5 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 h, or 10+ h. Because of the low frequency of extreme responses, women reporting 5 h were combined into one group, as were women reporting 9 h. An analogous question about habitual sleep duration has been previously validated against sleep diaries in a similar cohort. In addition, participants were asked Do you feel that your sleep duration is adequate?
Pneumonia Diagnosis And Treatment
This condition requires a medical diagnosis. Your doctor will request laboratory tests and imaging tests, such as an x-ray, to help diagnose your lung condition.
Treatment for this type of lung infection usually includes antibiotics to treat cases caused by bacteria. Treatment also includes medicine to relieve fever and cough.
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Are Sleep Disorders Common In People With Copd
Sleep-related breathing disorders affect breathing patterns and blood oxygen levels during sleep. Sleep-disordered breathing in COPD patients has been examined by a number of studies, although they have offered varied results on the number of patients who experience both.
COPD frequently coincides with obstructive sleep apnea , a condition characterized by gaps in breathing during sleep. Sleep apnea causes frequent and sudden nighttime awakenings, as well as drops in blood oxygen levels that accompany spikes in carbon dioxide levels. Co-occurring COPD and OSA are known as overlap syndrome, which is associated with more severe decreases in blood oxygen during the night.
Pneumonia Vs Pulmonary Edema
Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of mortality in underdeveloped as well as developed countries with the majority stake being held by children and the elderly.
Pneumonia is an infection of the respiratory tract following which there are several complications that lead to other morbidities and malaise. Pneumonia is mostly bacterial in onset though it can also be caused by viruses. Pneumonia presents with symptoms that maybe mistaken for pulmonary edema as both are respiratory infections and share a similar progression. The major difference being that pneumonia is an infectious pathology while pulmonary edema is not usually caused by an infection. It is a marker for a more severe underlying systemic pathology like heart failure or volume overload states in the body. Pulmonary edema can also be a sequel of causes that fluid overload in the lung.
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Measurement Of The Neutrophil
Blood samples were collected at day of recruitment into the cohort from 673 patients for complete blood count analyses and subsequent biomarker identification. The blood count differentials were automatically assessed using the XN-9000 Analyzer . The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated by dividing the absolute numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes.
What Health Complications Can Pneumonia Lead To
If you have flu-like symptoms that persist or worsen despite treatment, talk to your doctor.
Your doctor can monitor your lungs while you inhale, listening for crackling sounds that are audible only with a stethoscope.
In order to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific germ causing the illness, you may get a chest X-ray as well as a blood test, depending on your medical history and physical exam, if your doctor suspects that you have pneumonia.
If left untreated, pneumonia can become severe.
People with severe pneumonia experience higher fevers along with GI symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea, as well as:
- Difficulty breathing
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What Is Fungal Pneumonia
Three types of fungi living in soil are known causes of pneumonia:
- Coccidioides immitis and Coccidiodes posadasii are two related fungi common to the American Southwest. Both can cause coccidioidomycosis, also known as cocci or valley fever.
- Histoplasma capsulatum is found in the central and eastern United States, especially areas around the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, and causes a disease called histoplasmosis.
- Cryptococcus is a fungi found in soil and bird droppings all across the country.
Most people who inhale these fungi don’t get sick, but if your immune system is weak, you may develop pneumonia.
Another fungus, Pneumocystis jirovecii, can generate an infection in premature, malnourished infants, and in people with a weakened immune system, such as those who have HIV or AIDS.
The symptoms of pneumonia that are caused by fungi are often similar to those of other forms of pneumonia, including a fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue.
But because this type of pneumonia usually affects people with weakened immune systems, symptoms tend to develop faster, and people often experience a high fever.
Causes Of Walking Pneumonia
Walking pneumonia can be caused by viruses or bacteria. According to the American Lung Association, most cases are caused by M. pneumoniae, a common type of bacteria that usually affects children and adults under the age of 40. M. pneumoniae infections tend to peak in summer and early fall but can happen throughout the year.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae can also cause walking pneumonia. Infections from this type of bacteria are common in all four seasons. It often spreads in crowded environments, like college dorms and long-term care facilities.
Adults and children can also contract walking pneumonia from viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus is a frequent cause of walking pneumonia in young kids, while adults tend to get the viral form of the disease from the influenza virus.
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What Causes Pneumonia
Many kinds of bacteria and viruses can cause pneumonia.
The most common type of pneumonia is community-acquired pneumonia, which is when pneumonia affects somebody who is not already in hospital. The most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia is a bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae but there are many other causes. Community-acquired pneumonia is much less contagious than flu or a cold, because most peoples immune systems can kill the bacteria that causes it before they can cause an infection. Most people with community-acquired pneumonia are unlikely to give the disease to another person.
How Long Does It Last
It takes a certain amount of time to start to feel sick after getting exposed to a germ. This length of time is called the incubation period, and it depends on many things, especially which bug is causing the illness.
With influenza pneumonia, for example, someone may become sick as soon as 12 hours or as long as 3 days after exposure to the flu virus. But with walking pneumonia, a person may not feel it until 2 to 3 weeks after becoming infected.
Most types of pneumonia clear up within a week or two, although a cough can linger for several weeks more. In severe cases, it may take longer to completely recover.
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Identification Of Cases Of Pneumonia
Every 2 years, participants were asked to report cases of pneumonia. Medical records were obtained from all women who reported physician-diagnosed pneumonia confirmed by a chest radiograph, and records were reviewed by a physician to validate the findings. Only the first documented episode of pneumonia occurring between June 1, 2001 and May 31, 2005 was included. A validation study reviewing medical records of 76 women reporting pneumonia verified the radiographic presence of a pulmonary infiltrate in 82% of cases. A second validation study reviewing medical records found only 1 of 99 cases might have represented nosocomial pneumonia rather than community-acquired pneumonia.