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How Do Sleep Disorders Interfere With Normal Sleep

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Rem Sleep Behavior Disorder Symptoms

How Does Sleeping Disorder Affect The Body ?, Lack Of Sleep Side Effects, What is Sleeping Disorder?

REM sleep behavior disorder symptoms can include:

  • Minor movements of the limbs
  • More pronounced body movements such as punching, flailing, kicking, sitting up in bed, or jumping out of bed
  • Vocalizations including talking, yelling, or screaming

People arent aware of these behaviors during episodes, and in fact, many people only find out that they have REM sleep behavior disorder when they are told about their symptoms by a bed partner or roommate.

When a person is having an episode, they can usually be awoken relatively easily. When they wake up, they are usually alert, coherent, and can recall the content of the dream.

REM sleep usually begins about 90 minutes after you fall asleep, and REM sleep stages get longer in the second half of the night. For that reason, episodes of REM sleep behavior disorder frequently arise later in a sleep period.

Episodes can occur once or multiple times during the night. People may experience them a few times per year or every night. REM sleep behavior disorder can develop suddenly or gradually, but symptoms typically worsen over time.

Create An Environment Suited For Sleep

A comfortable environment can go a long way in getting a good nights sleep. If possible, consider investing in a new mattress. This can really improve your sleep, especially if its been a while since your last new mattress.

Making sure your bedroom is a comfortable temperature can also help you get a better nights sleep. Cooler temperatures tend to be the best for good sleep, so consider opening a window or using a fan while you sleep.

Discussing Sleep With Your Doctor

Dr. Larry Epstein describes the types of questions that doctors should be asking patients about their sleep.

A sleep doctor can help determine not only the origin and severity of a sleep problem, but can also recommend therapies that may help you obtain better sleep. This essay and other features on this site are intended to help you distinguish between normal sleep disturbances and the three broad categories of clinical sleep disorders that require treatment.

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What Happens During Sleep

You don’t notice it, of course, but while you’re asleep, your brain is still active. As people sleep, their brains pass through five stages of sleep. Together, stages 1, 2, 3, 4, and REM sleep make up a sleep cycle. One complete sleep cycle lasts about 90 to 100 minutes. So during an average night’s sleep, a person will experience about four or five cycles of sleep.

Stages 1 and 2 are periods of light sleep from which a person can wake up easily. During these stages, eye movements slow down and eventually stop, heart and breathing rates slow down, and body temperature decreases. Stages 3 and 4 are deep sleep stages. It’s more difficult to awaken someone during these stages, and when awakened, a person will often feel groggy and confused for a few minutes. Stages 3 and 4 are the most refreshing of the sleep stages it is this type of sleep that we crave when we are very tired.

The final stage of the sleep cycle is known as REM sleep because of the rapid eye movements that occur during this stage. During REM sleep, other physical changes take place breathing becomes rapid, the heart beats faster, and the limb muscles don’t move. This is the stage of sleep when a person has the most vivid dreams.;

An Introduction To The Distinct Conditions That Involve Disruptive Changes To Your Internal Clock And Sleep Timing

What Causes Sleep Paralysis During REM Sleep?

    Most people operate on a 24-hour biological clock that is synchronized with bodily hormone production and natural light and darkness. These 24-hour cycles are collectively known as the circadian rhythm, and they play a major role in our sleep cycle.

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorders formally known as circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders are a group of conditions tied to dysfunctions or misalignments with the bodys internal clock. Examples of these disorders include mild conditions such as jet lag, as well as more debilitating conditions such as delayed and advanced sleep-wake disorder, irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder, and shift work disorder.

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    How Much Sleep Is Necessary

    Experts generally recommend that adults sleep at least seven to nine hours per night, although some people require more and others require less.

    A recent National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll found that adults sleep an average of 6.4 hours per night on weekdays and 7.7 hours on weekends. The poll showed a downward trend in sleep time over the past several years. People sleeping less hours tend to use the internet at night or bring work home from the office.

    The National Sleep Foundation also reported that older adults average seven hours of sleep on weekdays and 7.1 hours on weekends. Sleep is most often disturbed by the need to use the bathroom and physical pain or discomfort in older adults.

    A downward trend in sleep time has also been observed in children. Optimal sleep time varies by age. An earlier Sleep in America poll found a discrepancy between recommended and actual sleep time in children, with actual sleep time 1.5 to two hours less than recommended. Caffeine consumption caused a loss of three to five hours of sleep and having a television in the bedroom contributed to a loss of two hours of sleep each week in children.

    What Causes Problems With Sleep

    The things that affect our sleep differ for everyone. They can include:

    • stresses or worries for example, issues with money, housing or;work
    • problems with where you sleep for example, if you sleep somewhere uncomfortable or you’re easily disturbed
    • health conditions relating to sleep, also known as sleep disorders
    • being a parent or carer

    For more information about sleep disorders, see the Mental Health Foundation and Royal College of Psychiatrists websites, and our list of useful contacts.

    “It’s not possible to relax if you don’t have anywhere comfortable and safe at night. This leads to not sleeping and worrying most of the night.”

    If problems with sleep are worrying you or affecting your day to day life, it’s a good idea to see a doctor who can give you a health check and help you access treatment and support. If you fill in a sleep diary, you could take this to your appointment to show your doctor.

    “My sleep problems are more a case of bedtime procrastination than insomnia as such and, as a consequence, being too tired the next morning. I still haven’t found out what works for me as I can get to sleep once I do get to bed.”

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    What It Is And What It Means For Sleepers And Their Bed Partners

      Normally during REM sleep, the body experiences temporary paralysis of most of the bodys muscles while the brain is active and dreaming. This allows us to dream quietly and safely throughout the night. For individuals with REM sleep behavior disorder, paralysis does not occur during the REM stage. Instead, their body and voice perform their dreams while they remain asleep.

      Less than one percent of people are estimated to have REM sleep behavior disorder. It usually begins after age 50, and the disease is associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinsons disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy. Symptoms often worsen with time. The condition usually requires treatment because it increases the risk of injury to oneself and their bed partner.

      Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

      Circadian Rhythm | How does it affect sleep & can you change yours?

      These disorders are common in teens. They can cause you to be sleepy during the school day and most alert at night. Signs of these disorders include the following problems:

      • Difficulty getting to sleep until the late evening or early morning hours
      • Difficulty waking in the morning for school
      • Sleeping very late into the morning or afternoon on weekends

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      Tracking Sleep Through Smart Technology

      Millions of people are using smartphone apps, bedside monitors, and wearable items to informally collect and analyze data about their sleep.; Smart technology can record sounds and movement during sleep, journal hours slept, and monitor heart beat and respiration.; Using a companion app, data from some devices can be synced to a smartphone or tablet, or uploaded to a PC.; Other apps and devices make white noise, produce light that stimulates melatonin production, and use gentle vibrations to help us sleep and wake.

      Why Does Aging Affect Sleep

      Its common for older adults to experience changes in the quality and duration of their sleep. Many of these changes occur due to changes in the bodys internal clock. A master clock in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus is composed of about 20,000 cells that form the suprachiasmatic nucleus .

      The SCN controls 24-hour daily cycles, called circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms influence daily cycles, like when people get hungry, when the body releases certain hormones, and when a person feels sleepy or alert.

      As people get older, their sleep changes due to effects of an aging SCN. Deterioration in the function of the SCN can disrupt circadian rhythms, directly influencing when people feel tired and alert.

      The SCN receives information from the eyes, and light is one of the most powerful cues for maintaining circadian rhythms. Unfortunately, research shows that many older people have insufficient exposure to daylight, averaging around one hour each day. Daylight exposure may be even more restricted for people who live in nursing homes as well as those with Alzheimers disease.

      Changes in production of hormones, such as melatonin and cortisol, may also play a role in disrupted sleep in older adults. As people age, the body secretes less melatonin, which is normally produced in response to darkness that helps promote sleep by coordinating circadian rhythms.

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      Children And Young Adults

      According to one meta-analysis, the two most prevalent sleep disorders among children are confusional arousals and sleep walking. An estimated 17.3% of kids between 3 and 13 years old experience confusional arousals. About 17% of children sleep walk, with the disorder being more common among boys than girls. The peak ages of sleep walking are from 8 to 12 years old. A different systematic review offers a high range of prevalence rates of sleep bruxism for children. Between 15.29 and 38.6% of preschoolers grind their teeth at least one night a week. All but one of the included studies reports decreasing bruxist prevalence as age increased as well as a higher prevalence among boys than girls.

      Another systematic review noted 7-16% of young adults suffer from delayed sleep phase disorder. This disorder reaches peak prevalence when people are in their 20s. Between 20 and 26% of adolescents report a sleep onset latency of greater than 30 minutes. Also, 7-36% have difficulty initiating sleep. Asian teens tend to have a higher prevalence of all of these adverse sleep outcomes than their North American and European counterparts.

      Headaches Strokes And Tumors

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      People who are prone to headaches should try to avoid sleep deprivation, as lack of sleep can promote headaches. Both cluster headaches and migraines may be related to changes in the size of blood vessels leading to the cortex of the brain; pain occurs when the walls of the blood vessels dilate.

      Researchers theorize that as the body catches up on missed sleep, it spends more time in delta sleep, when vessels are most constricted, making the transition to REM sleep more dramatic and likely to induce a headache. Headaches that awaken people are often migraines, but some migraines can be relieved by sleep. Sleepiness coupled with dizziness, weakness, headache, or vision problems may signal a serious problem such as a brain tumor or stroke, which requires immediate medical attention.

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      Sleep Disorders And Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Neurodegenerative diseases have been often associated with sleep disorders, mainly when they are characterized by abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein, such as multiple system atrophy , Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body disease . For instance, people diagnosed with PD have often presented different kinds of sleep concerns, commonly regard to insomnia , hypersomnia , and REM sleep behavior disorder – that may affect around 40% of the PD population and it is associated with increased motor symptoms. Furthermore, RBD has been also highlighted as a strong precursor of future development of those neurodegenerative diseases over several years in prior, which seems to be a great opportunity for improving the treatments of the disease.

      The neurodegenerative conditions are commonly related to brain structures impairment, which might disrupt the states of sleep and wakefulness, circadian rhythm, motor or non motor functioning. On the other hand, sleep disturbances are also frequently related to worsening patient’s cognitive functioning, emotional state and quality of life. Furthermore, these abnormal behavioural symptoms negatively contribute to overwhelming their relatives and caregivers. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the relationship between sleep disorders and neurodegenerative diseases seems to be extremely important, mainly considering the limited research related to it and the increasing expectancy of life.

      What Is Sleep Apnea

      Sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder that occurs when a person’s breathing is interrupted during sleep. People with untreated sleep apnea stop breathing repeatedly during their sleep.

      There are two types of sleep apnea: obstructive and central.

      • Obstructive sleep apnea is the more common of the two. It is caused by a blockage of the airway, usually when the soft tissue in the back of the throat collapses during sleep. Symptoms of OSA may include snoring, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, restlessness during sleep, gasping for air while sleeping and trouble concentrating.
      • In central sleep apnea , the airway is not blocked, but the brain fails to tell the body to breathe. This type is called central apnea because it is related to the function of the central nervous system. People with CSA may gasp for air but mostly report recurrent awakenings during night.

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      How Does Your Circadian Rhythm Impact Your Mood

      An irregular circadian rhythm can have a negative effect on a persons ability to sleep and function properly, and can result in a number of health problems, including mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.

      A recent study suggested that the night-owl type might have a greater predisposition to psychological disturbances. The authors found that the different circadian types were likely to have different coping styles to emotional stressors, and the ones adopted by the morning larks seemed to result in better outcomes and fewer psychological problems. This was a correlational study, so the reason for adopting different styles wasnt explained, but this study emphasizes the great impact circadian rhythms have on health and functioning.

      What Is A Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder

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      According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine International Classification of Sleep Disorders, a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder occurs because of an alteration to the bodys internal timekeeping system, the clocks inability to entrain roughly every 24 hours, or a misalignment between the clock and a persons external environment.

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      Sleep Apnea And Periodic Limb Movements In Sleep

      Two primary sleep disorders that increase with age are obstructive sleep apnea and periodic limb movements in sleep .

      OSA is the lack of breathing during sleep, and it can be obstructive , central , or mixed. People with OSA may experience waking with gasping, confused wandering in the night, and thrashing during sleep.

      Because waking resolves OSA, avoid sedatives and hypnotics in these patients because such agents can further relax the pharynx dilators, thereby worsening the apnea. Martin et al found that among healthy older adults living in community settings, the prevalence of OSA was 28% in men and 20% in women. They also found that among a random sample of patients in a medical ward, the prevalence of OSA was higher . This may be because of the high incidence of congestive heart failure in this group. Significantly, many elderly inpatients are prescribed hypnotics, which can exacerbate OSA. OSA occurs in 42% of people with dementia who live in nursing homes and correlates with cognitive function.

      An interaction between OSA and the cognitive deterioration of dementia is likely. Sedative-hypnotic medications will likely exacerbate sleep apnea and are not recommended in patients with OSA. OSA can result in daytime hypersomnolence, systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, cor pulmonale, and sudden death.

      Iv Competing For Sleep

      Teens have to balance the weight of many demands on their time. The biggest of these demands is school. Most schools start class very early in the morning. After a long day at school, teens may also have to study for hours at home. An early start and a lot of homework can combine to make it hard for them to get to sleep on time.

      Teens are faced with a lot of other things that compete for their time. Once they are old enough, many of them begin to work after school. Some simply want to have their own money to spend. Others have to do this to help their families. Older siblings may also be needed at home to look after younger brothers or sisters. After class is out, schools offer many sports teams, clubs, and activities that teens can join. These can take up as much time as a job. Of course, many teens also like to spend hours of their time with friends. With all of these options facing them, there simply isn’t enough time for teens to do it all. They have to give something up. Far too often, it is their sleep that gets left out.

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