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Is Sleep Apnea A Chronic Illness

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Sleep Apnea And The Risk Of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population

Chronic Irregular Sleep in Kids Linked to Mental Illness?

This was not an industry supported study. This study was supported by NCKUEDA-10312 & EDAHP-103050 from Research Foundation of E-DA Hospital and National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Taiwan. The authors have indicated no financial conflicts of interest.

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Sleep Apnea Cardiovascular Risk And Metabolism

Several studies have shown an association between sleep apnea and problems like type 2 diabetes , strokes , heart attacks and even a shortened lifespan, says Jun. Why this connection? For one thing, obesity is common in sleep apnea patients, and obesity greatly increases risks of diabetes, stroke and heart attack, he says. In most cases, obesity is the main culprit behind both conditions, Jun explains.

Still, its important to note that not everyone with sleep apnea is obese. Furthermore, evidence suggests an independent link between sleep apnea and diabetes. Our lab and others have shown that sleep apnea is associated with higher risks of diabetes, independent of obesity, and that sleep apnea can increase blood sugar levels, says Jun.

For people who are overweight or obese, weight loss is key for treating or avoiding sleep apnea. People who accumulate fat in the neck, tongue and upper belly are especially vulnerable to getting sleep apnea. This weight reduces the diameter of the throat and pushes against the lungs, contributing to airway collapse during sleep.

Women in particular should be careful as they age. While premenopausal women tend to put on weight in the hips and in the lower body instead of the belly, this shifts with time. Weight begins to accumulate in traditionally male areas like the tummy, and this leads to a greater chance of sleep apnea.

Pathophysiology Of Periodic Breathing

In healthy subjects the tidal volume and frequency of breathing is principally controlled by the arterial carbon dioxide tension , blood pH, and the arterial oxygen tension . These parameters are sensed in the arterial blood by peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid bodies and the aortic arch and are thought to react rapidly to short term changes in them. The central chemoreceptors are probably located at the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata, behind the blood brain barrier, which delays responses to changes in arterial blood gas tensions. It has been hypothesised that the central chemoreceptors determine the long term target range of blood gases. Information from these chemoreceptors is transferred to and processed in the respiratory centre in the brain stem, adjacent to centres which control the cardiovascular system. The relationship of the respiratory centre to other brain centres which might also influence the control of breathingfor example, circadian rhythm, sleep-wake rhythm, sleep stage, voluntary influenceis still being investigated. Further inputs into the respiratory centre come from pulmonary J receptors which measure stretch in the airways and the lungs, and from proprioceptors in the respiratory muscles of the diaphragm and the chest wall. Output from the respiratory centre is conducted by efferent nerves to the respiratory musclesthe ventilatory pump.

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Favorite Online Support Networks

This online forum is a place for people with sleep apnea and the medical providers who treat them to ask questions and get answers. The forum includes a section devoted to user-generated product reviews. There’s also a directory of providers, sleep labs, product providers, and support groups you can search by geographical area.

This online community of individuals who have sleep apnea and the doctors who treat them offers an online forum to share advice about managing sleep apnea. The website also features a blog with posts about patient stories and new research.

Can You Die From Sleep Apnea

Most Common Sleep Disorders

Sleep apnea doesnt directly cause death. However, it can lead to a variety of health conditions that can be fatal.

According to the American Sleep Apnea Association, 38,000 people die from heart disease each year in the United States, with sleep apnea as a complicating factor. A study published in the scientific journal, Sleep, showed that people with sleep apnea have a higher mortality rate than those without and that people with undiagnosed sleep apnea have an increased risk of death again. People with sleep apnea have three times the risk of dying from any cause, with 42 percent of deaths in people with severe sleep apnea attributed to cardiovascular disease or stroke, compared to 26 percent of deaths in people with no sleep apnea.

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Central Sleep Apnea Depression What Is It

These medical attributes most likely show a high genetic responsibility to depressive disease. Member of the family likewise need education and learning regarding the nature of depression and might benefit from encouraging interactions. Involving family members can be a vital central sleep apnea depression component of a treatment plan, especially for pediatric and also late-onset depression. Member of the family are handy informants, can ensure medication conformity, and can encourage clients to alter behaviors that continue depression.

The Effects Of Sleep Apnea On The Body

Sleep apnea is a condition in which your breathing repeatedly pauses while you sleep. When this happens, your body wakes you up to resume breathing. These multiple sleep interruptions prevent you from sleeping well, leaving you feeling extra tired during the day.

Sleep apnea does more than make you sleepy, though. When left untreated, it can contribute to heart disease, diabetes, and other long-term health risks.

Sleep apnea happens when your airway becomes blocked or collapses during the night. Each time your breathing restarts, you might let out a loud snore that wakes both you and your bed partner.

Many health conditions are linked to sleep apnea, including obesity and high blood pressure. These conditions, coupled with the lack of sleep, can harm many different systems in your body.

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What Are The Treatments For Sleep Apnea

Conservative treatments: In mild cases of obstructive sleep apnea, conservative therapy may be all that is needed.

  • Overweight persons can benefit from losing weight. Even a 10% weight loss can reduce the number of apneic events for most patients. However, losing weight can be difficult to do with untreated obstructive sleep apnea due to increased appetite and metabolism changes that can happen with obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea should avoid the use of alcohol and certain sleeping pills, which make the airway more likely to collapse during sleep and prolong the apneic periods.
  • In some patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea, breathing pauses occur only when they sleep on their backs. In such cases, using a wedge pillow or other devices that help them sleep in a side position may help.
  • People with sinus problems or nasal congestion should use nasal sprays or breathing strips to reduce snoring and improve airflow for more comfortable nighttime breathing. Avoiding sleep deprivation is important for all patients with sleep disorders.

Hypoglossal nerve stimulator: A stimulator is implanted under the skin on the right side of the chest with electrodes tunneled under the skin to the hypoglossal nerve in the neck and to intercostal muscles in the chest. The device is turned on at bedtime with a remote control. With each breath, the hypoglossal nerve is stimulated, the tongue moves forward out of the airway and the airway is opened.

When To Talk To Your Doctor

Do you have sleep apnea? Sleep Apnea with Chronic Illness | AeroFlow Sleep Quizzes

Knowing when to see your doctor about sleep apnea can help to protect you from the consequences of leaving it untreated. There are various symptoms to look out for if you think that you might have sleep apnea. Loud snoring is one major sign, although not everyone who snores has sleep apnea. You may also have difficulty staying asleep and might gasp for air during sleep or stop breathing. Some of these things might be noticed by someone you share a bed or room with. You could also find that you wake up with a dry mouth or headache, or that you feel tired and irritable during the day. Your doctor can help with diagnosis using a sleep test at a sleep center or at home.

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Sleep Deprivation And Heart Disease

Insufficient or fragmented sleep is common in patients with sleep apnea, and regularly missing sleep can negatively affect heart health. One of the many important roles of sleep is to allow the body to rest and recuperate. Heart rate and blood pressure drop during sleep as breathing becomes stable and regular.

Not getting enough sleep as a result of conditions like OSA means not giving the heart and cardiovascular system this important recovery time. Chronic sleep deprivation has been linked to increased risk for hypertension, heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke.

How Does Chronic Illness Affect Sleep

The pain and fatigue of chronic illness have a large impact on peoples daily lives, including sleep. Because of their illness, they often have trouble sleeping at night and are sleepy during the day. This is especially the case for people who have neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Insomnia and other sleep disorders can make the person’s pain and quality of life worse. In addition, some drugs used to treat chronic illnesses can cause sleep problems.

People who have a chronic illness may also have depression or anxiety, which can also cause sleep problems.

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Activating The Sympathetic Nervous System

Each time a person with sleep apnea stops breathing, the level of oxygen in the blood decreases. As the body becomes deprived of oxygen, specialized cells called chemoreceptors detect these changes and activate the sympathetic nervous system to respond, which is the part of the nervous system responsible for reacting to stressful or dangerous situations. The sympathetic nervous system triggers the body to gasp for air, which sometimes wakes a person out of sleep.

The sympathetic nervous system also responds to a low level of oxygen by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate and blood pressure. As the pauses in breath continue throughout the night, repetitive changes in blood pressure may lead to hypertension or make existing hypertension worse.

Sleep Apneas Effects On The Cardiovascular System

Sleep Apnea Linked to Chronic Kidney Disease : LIVING ...

The repetitive pauses in breathing that characterize sleep apnea can stress and potentially damage not only the heart, but the whole cardiovascular system. While researchers are continuing to learn about the ways in which sleep apnea affects the cardiovascular system and contributes to heart disease, several biological pathways have been suggested.

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Sleep Apnea And Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Department of Medicine, Womens College Hospital, Toronto, ON, CanadaDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan
  • Owen D. LyonsCorrespondenceCORRESPONDENCE TO: Owen D. Lyons, MBBCh, Department of Medicine, Womens College Hospital, 76 Grenville St, Toronto, ON, M5S 1B2, CanadaDepartment of Medicine, Womens College Hospital, Toronto, ON, CanadaDepartment of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Osa Management And Kidney Function

Treatment of moderate to severe OSA by CPAP positively affects kidney filtration by minimizing glomerular hyperfiltration, which is common in many renal disorders. Kinebuchi et al. compared the filtration fractions of 21 patients with moderate-to-severe OSA before and after CPAP treatment, considering filtration fractions and renal plasma flows as indicators of glomerular hyperfiltration. Short-term CPAP therapy significantly reduced hyperfiltration by increasing renal plasma flow and reducing the filtration fraction. Another recent study examined the effects of short-term CPAP treatment on kidney function in 27 men with polysomnography-diagnosed OSA . Three months of CPAP treatment decreased average serum creatinine levels , and increased average eGFR levels from 72.9 to 79.3 mg/dL these changes were statistically significant but with unreported clinical benefits. Findings from this study are limited by the lack of a control group and adjustment for other potential confounders.

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The Magnitude Of The Problem

The prevalence of OSA is much greater among certain high-risk groups. OSA with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as an overlap syndrome . Overlap syndrome is uncommon in the general population , but is common among patients diagnosed with OSA , 70.5% among hypertensive patients , and 56.7% among patients with thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension . This is because OSA affects the coagulation system and results in a hypercoagulable state due to hypoxic vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling , . Additionally, OSA is significantly associated with insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia which are the criteria for the metabolic syndrome . Moreover, evidence is being accumulated on the association between OSA and liver steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver . Higher morbidity-mortality rates are consequences of untreated OSA . Furthermore, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is greater in untreated OSA including heart failure , arrhythmias , , , and hypertension and stroke in addition to ocular complications . In a large observational cohort study, untreated OSA significantly and independently increased the risk of stroke or death from any cause .

Apart from its effect at the individual level, OSA has detrimental effects on society as described in this review and summarized in Figure 1.

Which Types Of Depression Qualify For Impairment

People with severe sleep apnea have a new way of getting relief

Various other symptoms consist of weight gain, enhanced appetite, resting exceedingly, a heavy feeling in the limbs, and also sensitivity to rejection. If youve ever before undergone phases where you experienced extreme central sleep apnea depression feelings of ecstasy, a reduced need for rest, racing ideas, as well as impulsive behavior, consider obtaining reviewed for bipolar affective disorder.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome: An Emerging Chronic Disease

This series of articles, published in Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, provides the newest research and comprehensive background information on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome , an underdiagnosed chronic disease characterized by recurrent episodes of apneas and hypopneas during sleep, associated with repetitive episodes of intermittent hypoxemia, intrathoracic pressure changes, arousals, and excessive daytime sleepiness. OSAS is considered as risk factor for cancer. Patients with untreated OSAS are at significantly increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, neurocognitive disease and motor vehicle accidents . The European Commission recommended mandatory testing for OSAS, before a driver’s license is granted or renewed. In Italy the Ministry of Health recognizes OSAS as a very important public health issue.

The articles aim to provide an up-to-date information on this topic.

  • Obstructive sleep apnea is a worldwide highly prevalent disease associated with systemic consequences, including excessive sleepiness, impairment of neurocognitive function and daytime performance, inclu…

    Citation:Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 201914:21

    Content type: Review

  • Obstructive sleep apnea is a highly prevalent disease, and is traditionally associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The role of comorbidities in OSA patients has emerged recently, and new conditio…

    Citation:Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 201914:8

    Content type: Review

  • When To See A Doctor

    Given the significant health consequences of untreated sleep apnea, its important to know when its time to reach out to a doctor. Common signs and symptoms of sleep apnea include:

    • Frequent, loud snoring or gasping during sleep
    • Reduced breathing or pauses in breathing during sleep
    • Daytime sleepiness and fatigue
    • Difficulty maintaining attention and concentration
    • Dry mouth or headaches when waking
    • Sexual dysfunction or decreased libido
    • Waking up often at night to urinate

    Primary care doctors or specialists are all good resources if youre concerned about having sleep apnea. Diagnostic tests for sleep apnea often include a comprehensive sleep evaluation and polysomnography to diagnose or rule out this serious condition.

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    What Is Sleep Apnea

    Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder that happens when a person’s breathing is interrupted during sleep. People with untreated sleep apnea stop breathing repeatedly during their sleep, sometimes hundreds of times during the night.

    If its not treated, sleep apnea can cause a number of health problems, including hypertension , stroke, cardiomyopathy , heart failure, diabetes and heart attacks. Untreated sleep apnea can also be responsible for job impairment, work-related accidents and motor vehicle crashes, as well as underachievement in school in children and adolescents.

    There are two types of sleep apnea, obstructive and central:

    • Obstructive sleep apnea is the more common of the two. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs as repetitive episodes of complete or partial upper airway blockage during sleep. During an apneic episode, the diaphragm and chest muscles work harder as the pressure increases to open the airway. Breathing usually resumes with a loud gasp or body jerk. These episodes can interfere with sound sleep, reduce the flow of oxygen to vital organs, and cause heart rhythm irregularities.
    • In central sleep apnea, the airway is not blocked but the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe due to instability in the respiratory control center. Central apnea is related to the function of the central nervous system.

    What Is Sleep Apnea Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment And Prevention

    Snoring and Heart Disease: How Obstructive Sleep Apnea Can ...

    Correctly identifying and treating sleep apnea can also play a crucial role in public safety, says Ronald Chervin, MD, immediate past president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and a professor of sleep medicine, professor of neurology, and the director of the Sleep Disorders Centers at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

    “Sleep apnea is a public health problem,” he says.

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    Treating Sleep Apnea To Reduce The Risk Of Heart Disease

    Talking to a doctor about sleep apnea is an important step that anyone can take to protect their heart health. If a person is diagnosed with sleep apnea, treatments are often effective. Treatment for sleep apnea depends on the type of sleep apnea detected and may include:

    • Lifestyle changes: Doctors may begin by informing patients about lifestyle changes that may reduce the severity of this condition. Weight loss, exercise, limiting alcohol, quitting smoking, and even changing your sleeping position may be helpful.
    • Positive airway pressure devices: PAP devices pump air through the airway, preventing the upper airway from collapsing during sleep.
    • Mouthpieces and oral appliances: Oral appliances reduce disordered breathing by changing the position of the jaw, tongue, or other part of the body thats constricting the airway.
    • Mouth and throat exercises: Depending on the cause of a persons sleep apnea, special exercises of the mouth and throat may help tone these muscles, making them less likely to interfere with breathing during sleep.
    • Surgery: Surgery for sleep apnea may involve changing parts of the body that cause airway constriction or implanting devices that causes tightening of the muscles around the airway.
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