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Is Sleep Deprivation A Disease

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Lack Of Sleep Ages Your Skin

New Stanford University study finds lack of sleep linked to Alzheimers disease l GMA

Most people have experienced sallow skin and puffy eyes after a few nights of missed sleep. But it turns out that chronic sleep loss can lead to lackluster skin, fine lines, and dark circles under the eyes.

When you donââ¬â¢t get enough sleep, your body releases more of the stress hormone cortisol. In excess amounts, cortisol can break down skin collagen, the protein that keeps skin smooth and elastic.

Sleep loss also causes the body to release too little human growth hormone. When weââ¬â¢re young, human growth hormone promotes growth. As we age, it helps increase muscle mass, thicken skin, and strengthen bones.

ââ¬ÅItââ¬â¢s during deep sleep — what we call slow-wave sleep — that growth hormone is released,ââ¬ï¿½ says sleep expert Phil Gehrman, PhD. ââ¬ÅIt seems to be part of normal tissue repair — patching the wear and tear of the day.ââ¬ï¿½

Sleep Loss Impairs Judgment Especially About Sleep

Lack of sleep can affect our interpretation of events. This hurts our ability to make sound judgments because we may not assess situations accurately and act on them wisely.

Sleep-deprived people seem to be especially prone to poor judgment when it comes to assessing what lack of sleep is doing to them. In our increasingly fast-paced world, functioning on less sleep has become a kind of badge of honor. But sleep specialists say if you think youââ¬â¢re doing fine on less sleep, youââ¬â¢re probably wrong. And if you work in a profession where itââ¬â¢s important to be able to judge your level of functioning, this can be a big problem.

ââ¬ÅStudies show that over time, people who are getting six hours of sleep, instead of seven or eight, begin to feel that theyââ¬â¢ve adapted to that sleep deprivation — theyââ¬â¢ve gotten used to it,ââ¬ï¿½ Gehrman says. ââ¬ÅBut if you look at how they actually do on tests of mental alertness and performance, they continue to go downhill. So thereââ¬â¢s a point in sleep deprivation when we lose touch with how impaired we are.ââ¬ï¿½

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What Are Symptoms Of Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

Someone with insufficient sleep syndrome may:

  • Routinely spend less than 8 hours in bed at night
  • Have a close friend or family member note that they need much more sleep than they get
  • Have their symptoms improve if they sleep for a longer period of time
  • Be free of any other medical or sleep disorders that might cause their symptoms of excessive sleepiness
  • Have concentration and attention problems, lowered energy level, reduced alertness, distractibility, irritability or fatigue

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What It Is Its Causes Symptoms And Long

    Almost everyone has encountered a zombie-like feeling after a night of minimal or no sleep. Even after just one night without enough rest, we can feel drowsy during the day with slowed thinking, lack of energy, and an irritable mood.

    Sleep deprivation is when you dont get the sleep you need, and it is Its estimated to affect around one-third of American adults , a problem that has only worsened in recent years.

    Lack of sleep directly affects how we think and feel. While the short-term impacts are more noticeable, chronic sleep deprivation can heighten the long-term risk of physical and mental health problems.

    To avoid these problems, its important to avoid sleep deprivation. Understanding this condition, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment can put you in a better position to ensure that youre getting the sleep you need.

    The Relationship Between Sleep And Health

    Can Sleep Deprivation Cause Anxiety Depression

    Not getting enough sleep can have profound consequences on a daily and potentially long-term basis for your health and mental well-being.

    We all have some sense of the relationship between sleep and our ability to function throughout the day. After all, everyone has experienced the fatigue, bad mood, or lack of focus that so often follow a night of poor sleep. What many people do not realize is that a lack of sleepespecially on a regular basisis associated with long-term health consequences, including chronic medical conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease, and that these conditions may lead to a shortened life expectancy. Additional research studies show that habitually sleeping more than nine hours is also associated with poor health.

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    Weight Gain & Obesity

    The effects of continual sleep problems include rapid weight gain. A lack of sleep is related to higher amounts of cortisol, a stress hormone the resulting anxiety, stress and frustration often contribute to emotional eating and poor nutritional habits. Another hormone, called ghrelin, is produced in the stomach and has been associated with sleep long-term deprivation an excess of ghrelin can actually make people feel more hungry.

    Over time, sleep deprivation negatively impacts the bodys metabolism and eating habits. Tiredness often leads to unhealthy cravings and overindulgence, accompanied by a decrease in stamina and physical activity. Research has shown that people who feel unrested are more likely to choose foods that are rich in carbohydrates and sugar.

    Mathematics tells us that a decrease in exercise, combined with an increase in the amount eaten plus an increase in the caloric value of the food ingested, equals weight gain. Obesity is a known risk factor for insomniacs.

    Diagram of the main 10 effects of long-term sleep deprivation on the human mind and body.

    Sleep Deprivation Described As A Serious Public Health Problem

    From Left: Clifford B. Saper, Harvard Medical School Deirdre Leigh Barrett, Harvard Medical School Michael J. Twery, NHLBI/NIH | AAAS/Robert Beets

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes sleep deprivation as a “public health epidemic” linked to a wide range of medical issues, including hypertension, diabetes, depression, obesity and cancer. Yet, the demands of modern society increasingly can shorten the time for rest, speakers said 11 March at AAAS.

    Adults need seven to nine hours of sleep per night, according to the National Sleep Foundation, but a CDC survey found that some 50 to 70 million U.S. adults suffer chronic sleep and wakefulness disorders. More than 35 percent of nearly 75,000 survey respondents reported getting less than seven hours of sleep, on average, each night. The National Department of Transportation estimates that drowsy driving causes 1,550 fatalities and 40,00 nonfatal injuries every year in the United States.

    “It’s a big problem,” said Michael J. Twery, director of the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Most recently, he noted, researchers reported in Science that sleep functions as a kind of “sewer system” for the brain, at least in mice, by flushing beta-amyloid, which is known to accumulate in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

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    Working Memory And Attention

    Besides the many physical consequences of insufficient sleep, perhaps the most important consequences of sleep deprivation are deficits in working memory and attention. Lapses in ordinary mundane routines can cause worrying results from missing words or sentences while taking notes to omitting important ingredients while cooking. It appears that carrying out tasks that require attention is in direct correlation to the number of hours the person sleeps each night with these functions declining with the number hours of sleep deprivation. Methods such as choice-reaction time tasks are used to test working memory. Sadly, these attentional lapses can move into critical domains whereby the consequences could well result in life or death: industrial accidents and car crashes can be the result of inattentiveness, directly attributable to sleep deprivation.

    Researchers typically use the psychomotor vigilance task in order to measure the magnitude of attention deficits: this simply requires the patient to press a button at pseudo-random intervals in response to a light. An error is recorded when the patient fails to press the button in response to the light , and this is noted as being attributable to the micro-sleeps occurring due to sleep deprivation.

    Increases Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease

    For Your Health – Heart Disease, Lupus and Sleep Deprivation

    Lack of sleep can affect your bodys coronary arteries- causing them to become blocked and brittle. Blocked arteries can ultimately lead to cardiovascular disease, possible stroke, and congestive heart failure.

    A 2011 study followed approximately 500, 000 thousand men and women, from various ages, ethnicities, and races, across eight countries, concluding that over time, a lack of sleep was linked with a 45% increased rate of developing, and in some cases dying from, coronary heart disease. Even accounting for lifestyle factors such as physical activity, body mass, and smoking and drinking, the evidence for heart problems linked to less sleep was insurmountable.

    Everyone knows about the midlife crisis- but it is at this time that people are most susceptible to the adverse effects of sleep deprivation. The real midlife crisis is the realization that adults forty-five or older that sleep less than six hours per night are 200% more likely to experience a heart attack or stroke in their lifetime- compared to their counterparts that slept seven to eight hours a night.

    Much of the issue stems from the effects of sleep deprivation on blood pressure. Just one or two hours of missed sleep a night will escalate that persons heart rate, which in turn increases the blood pressure, leading to the erosion of the coronary arteries.

    Regular daytime napping can actually improve heart health, new studies show.So catching quality daytime and nighttime sleep can help keep your heart healthy.

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    How Much Sleep Do You Actually Need

    Everyone feels better after a good nights rest. But now, thanks to a report from the National Sleep Foundation, you can aim for a targeted sleep number tailored to your age.

    The foundation based its report on two years of research andbreaks it down into nine age-specific categories, with a slight range thatallows for individual preference:

    • Older adults, 65+ years: 7 to 8 hours.
    • Adults, 26 to 64 years: 7 to 9 hours.
    • Young adults, 18 to 25 years: 7 to 9 hours.
    • Teenagers, 14 to 17 years: 8 to 10 hours.
    • School-age children, 6 to 13 years: 9 to 11 hours.
    • Preschool children, 3 to 5 years: 10 to 13 hours.
    • Toddlers, 1 to 2 years: 11 to 14 hours.
    • Infants, 4 to 11 months: 12 to 15 hours.
    • Newborns, 0 to 3 months: 14 to 17 hours.

    Dr. Walia says theres evidence that genetic, behavioral and environmental factors help determine how much sleep an individual needs for their best health and daily performance.

    But a minimum of seven hours of sleep is a step in the rightdirection to improve your health, she says.

    Consequences Of Sleep Deprivation

    The lack of sleep effects become more pronounced the longer the body goes without sleep. Mild sleep deprivation has some immediate and sometimes almost unnoticeable effects, such as impaired memory and alertness. These can lead to poor work performance and difficulty in personal relationships. Sleep deprivation can also lead to grumpiness, irritability, and depression. There are also a number of studies that suggest that lack of sleep can trigger sleep deprivation headaches and migraines.7

    Chronic sleep deprivation can have serious health implications. Persistent sleep deficiency can lead to a number of physical health risks, including hypertension, diabetes, and heart issues.8 It can also lead to significant psychological issues, including anxiety and depression.

    The human body requires sleep to function. Getting no sleep at all can lead to psychosis and even death.9 The potential for fatal repercussions of this means there are not many tests conducted on the effects of total sleep deprivation in humans. The longest recorded time someone has gone without sleeping was eleven days.10

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    What Does Sleep Deprivation Do To The Brain

    Sleep deprivation effects on the brain are very noticeable and manifest quickly. Sleep deprivation disrupts and slows down the communication between neurons in your brain. It results in impaired memory, an inability to respond to negative stimuli appropriately, difficulty making decisions, and slower cognitive function.

    Longest Periods Without Sleep

    This Is Your Body on Sleep Deprivation

    Randy Gardner holds the scientifically documented record for the longest period of time a human being has intentionally gone without sleep not using stimulants of any kind. Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours , breaking the previous record of 260 hours held by Tom Rounds of Honolulu.LCDR John J. Ross of the U.S. Navy Medical Neuropsychiatric Research Unit later published an account of this event, which became well known among sleep-deprivation researchers.

    The Guinness World Record stands at 449 hours , held by Maureen Weston, of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire in April 1977, in a rocking-chair marathon.

    Claims of total sleep deprivation lasting years have been made several times, but none are scientifically verified. Claims of partial sleep deprivation are better documented. For example, Rhett Lamb of St. Petersburg, Florida was initially reported to not sleep at all, but actually had a rare condition permitting him to sleep only one to two hours per day in the first three years of his life. He had a rare abnormality called an ArnoldChiari malformation where brain tissue protrudes into the spinal canal and the skull puts pressure on the protruding part of the brain. The boy was operated on at All Children’s Hospital in St. Petersburg in May 2008. Two days after surgery he slept through the night.

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    The Dangers Of Sleep Deprivation

    Most people are familiar with the obvious consequences of sleep deprivation the heavy eyelids, short attention spans and excessive yawning after a poor night’s sleep.

    But there are more consequences of meager sleep than people realize. Research shows skimping on sleep is linked to numerous health problems, including stroke, obesity and Alzheimer’s disease.

    “It’s like with diet, every cell in the body benefits from food in some way,” said Michael Grandner, director of the Sleep and Health Research Program at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson. “Sleep is similar in that way. The whole body .”

    Just one night of sleep deprivation can lead to accumulation in the brain of the beta amyloid protein, a key component in risk for Alzheimer’s disease, according to a 2018 study. Researchers found signs of the protein in the hippocampus, which plays a major role in forming new memories and is one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer’s.

    There also is evidence that lack of sleep contributes to excess body weight. One study found people who slept fewer than seven hours each night were more likely to have a higher average body mass index and develop obesity than those who slept more. Sleep restriction also was associated with salt retention and inflammatory markers.

    It is possible to suffer a sleep disorder without realizing it, Grandner said.

    Drinking coffee late in the day can be a culprit as well, she said. Life stressors can carry over into nighttime, too.

    How Is Sleep Deprivation Diagnosed

    Sleep specialists say that one of the telltale signs of sleep deprivation is feeling drowsy during the day. In fact, even if a task is boring, you should stay alert during it if you are not sleep-deprived. Also, if you frequently fall asleep within 5 minutes of lying down, then you likely have severe sleep deprivation. People with sleep deprivation also experience microsleeps, which are brief periods of sleep during waking time. In many cases, sleep deprived people may not even be aware that they are experiencing these microsleeps.

    If you have any of these warning signs or the symptoms listed above, see your doctor or ask for a referral to a sleep specialist. Your doctor will ask you detailed questions to get a better sense of the nature of your sleeping problems.

    In some instances, if a more serious and possibly life-threatening sleep disorder, such sleep apnea, is suspected, then the sleep specialist may conduct a test called a polysomnography, or a sleep study. This test actually monitors your breathing, heart rate, and other vital signs during an entire night of sleep. It gives the sleep specialist useful information to help diagnose and treat your underlying disorder.

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    Common Causes Of Sleep Deprivation:

    Sleep disorders that reduce sleep time like insomnia, sleep apnea, RLS, and others.

    • Sleep disorders that interfere with the brains ability to stay awake, including narcolepsy and primary hypersomnia.
    • Insufficient total sleep time.
    • Distractions during sleep from a bed partner. There is data to suggest that bed partner snoring can cause disruption to sleep.

    The Hidden Costs Of Insufficient Sleep

    Sleep Deprivation and Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Atul Malhotra

    Sleep is often one of the first things to go when people feel pressed for time. Many view sleep as a luxury and think that the benefits of limiting the hours they spend asleep outweigh the costs. People often overlook the potential long-term health consequences of insufficient sleep, and the impact that health problems can ultimately have on one’s time and productivity.

    Many of the costs of poor sleep go unnoticed. Medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, develop over long periods of time and result from a number of factors, such as genetics, poor nutrition, and lack of exercise. Insufficient sleep has also been linked to these and other health problems, and is considered an important risk factor. Although scientists have just begun to identify the connections between insufficient sleep and disease, most experts have concluded that getting enough high-quality sleep may be as important to health and well-being as nutrition and exercise.

    Sleep Deprivation and Disease RiskDr. Lawrence J. Epstein discusses the relationship between sleep deprivation and disease risk.

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    The Truth Behind Sleep Deprivation

    Walker asserts that sleep is the foundation of which we exist, and when that suffers, we, in our entirety, suffer. He underlines this important point referring to the fact, there are more than twenty large-scale epidemiological studies that have tracked millions of people over many decades, all of which report the same clear relationship: the shorter your sleep, the shorter your life.

    Industrialized nations, such as the US, UK, Japan, South Korea, and parts of western Europe that possess declining sleep times are witnessing a dramatic increase in cases of mental disorders and physical diseases.

    Educating yourself on the dangers of sleep deprivation can be the catalyst for catching a better nights sleep. Once you understand the issues, you can take steps to change the way you achieve your shut-eye and improve sleep quality and overall health.

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