How Much Sleep Do I Need
Individual sleep needs vary, but it is widely accepted that most adults need between seven and eight hours of sleep each night, whilst children and teenagers require slightly more.
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Partial night sleep deprivation reduces natural killer and cellular immune responses in humans
Sleep and depression
The relationships between insomnia, sleep apnoea and depression
Sleep deprivation impairs the accurate recognition of human emotions
Strategies To Battle The Health Effects Of Shift Work
No administrator would allow employees to work while under the influence of alcohol. Yet, across the nation, correctional employees, and in particular custody staff, are functioning under the influence, not due to alcohol intoxication, but due to partial chronic sleep deprivation because of working mandatory overtime on a frequent and long-term basis.
These concerns are highlighted by the findings of a recent very large study. Data on 110,496 college students, including 8,462 varsity athletes, were gathered from the 20112014 waves of the National College Health Assessment, and the statistical analyses controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, survey year, insomnia and depressed mood. Insufficient sleep was measured by the number of nights that students reported that they did not feel rested upon awakening. Mental health symptoms were measured by the number of symptoms reported during the prior month.
Results showed that insufficient sleep was strongly associated with mental health symptoms. Additionally, a dose-response relationship was found between insufficient sleep and reported mental health symptoms. That is, with each additional night of insufficient sleep, reported mental health symptoms increased by a certain amount.
Specifically, the results showed that with each additional night of insufficient sleep:
These are highly disturbing and eye-opening findings, as they show that our brains health is critically dependent on getting sufficient sleep.
The Impacts Of Trauma On Sleep
Sleep issues are common after a traumatic experience. Alertness and hyperarousal related to the effects of the bodys stress response often contribute to the symptoms of insomnia. Many people have difficulty falling asleep, wake up more often during the night, and have trouble falling back asleep after a traumatic event.
Trauma can also affect sleep architecture, which means that it can change how the body moves through sleep cycles and stages. Although experts are still working to understand the implications of the changes observed in sleep architecture after trauma, rapid eye movement sleep appears to be the stage most affected. REM sleep is important for storing memories and processing emotions, and dreams during REM sleep tend to be more fantastical and bizarre.
Distressing dreams and nightmares are common to trauma. Survivors often have dreams about the traumatic event that either directly replay the experience or contain trauma-related emotion, content, and symbols. Researchers hypothesize that trauma-related dreams are caused by the brains fear response combined with hyperarousal, and may represent the minds attempt at integrating a traumatic experience.
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Hazing Terms & Examples
Per the Indiana University Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, & Conduct,Hazing is defined as any conduct that subjects another person, whether physically, mentally, emotionally, or psychologically, to anything that may endanger, abuse, degrade, or intimidate the person as a condition of association with a group or organization, regardless of the persons consent or lack of consent.
The Office of Student Conduct investigates reports received for any behavior that may be determined to be in violation of the Universitys Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, & Conduct. When investigating, the Office of Student Conduct may consider the following: time, manner, nature of the behaviors, intention behind behaviors, etc.
The items listed below include, but are not limited to, areas that may meet the Universitys definition of hazing, or other University code violations. Some behaviors may be categorized in numerous categories.
Consumption: Consumption may include but is not limited to eating, drinking, inhaling, snorting, and inserting any substance. Substances may include but are not limited to food, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, water, drugs, and any mixture of substances. Consumption may or may not occur as a result of being physically forced, directed to, feeling pressured to, or being coerced by affiliated members either directly or indirectly.
Physical And Mental Health Effects Of Both A Good And Bad Nights Sleep
We often feel out of sorts after a bad nights sleep, yet ready to take on anything after an unbroken eight hours. Here we look at the physical and mental health effects of both a good and bad nights sleep.
We often feel out of sorts after a bad nights sleep, yet we feel ready to take on anything after an unbroken eight hours.
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Latent Classes Of Childhood Abuse
According to BIC and AIC, we observed significant improvement in model fit for the five-class solution in comparison to the four-class solution . Comparisons between the five- and six-class solutions demonstrated somewhat mixed results. Although AIC supported the six-class solution , there was no significant improvement in the BIC for the six-class solution . There was a negligible improvement of entropy for the six-class solution . The LRT and the bootstrapped parameter likelihood ratio test had p values of 0.74 and 0.50, respectively, for the six-class solution , suggesting that the five-class solution was sufficient. In addition, the six-class model presented no additional substantive classes, and two out of the six classes comprised < 4% of the sample. This small sample size raised concerns regarding adequate statistical power when using the latent class memberships within multivariate models. Furthermore, we encountered problems in estimating standard errors within the six-class solution due to model identification problems. Accordingly, we retained the five-class solution.
Tips For Good Sleep Hygiene
Sleep hygiene and mental health are closely linked, because sleep is essential to young adults mental and physical well-being. Getting the right amount and quality of sleep can be a powerful protective factor against anxiety and depression.
To establish healthy sleep patterns, young adults can follow these tips for good sleep hygiene:
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The Impact Of Sleepiness On Mood And Mental Health
Lack of sleep can alter your mood significantly. It causes irritability and anger and may lessen your ability to cope with stress. According to the NSF, the âwalking tiredâ are more likely to sit and seethe in traffic jams and quarrel with other people. Sleep-deprived people polled by the NSF were also less likely than those who sleep well to exercise, eat healthfully, have sex, and engage in leisure activities because of sleepiness.
âOver time, impaired memory, mood, and other functions become a chronic way of life,â says Siebern. âIn the long term, this can affect your job or relationships.â
Chronic sleepiness puts you at greater risk for depression. They are so closely linked that sleep specialists arenât always sure which came first in their patients. âSleep and mood affect each other,â says Verceles. âItâs not uncommon for people who donât get enough sleep to be depressed or for people who are depressed to not sleep well enough.â
How Much Sleep Do We Need
Sleep needs change as we age, with the average person generally requiring less sleep at older ages. However, specific sleep amounts vary by individual. According to the National Sleep Foundation and American Academy of Sleep Medicine , newborns need the most sleep, at 14-17 hours a day, followed by infants at 12-16 hours a day including naps. Toddlers need about 10-14 hours a day. Preteens and teenagers need about 8-12 hours a night, and adults about 7-8 hours a day. A consensus by the AASM and Sleep Research Society recommends that adults should sleep 7 or more hours a night to promote optimal health.
Despite these general recommendations on sleep duration, individual differences in sleep requirements exist. In most epidemiologic studies, increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, has been observed among those who reported sleeping 5 hours or less per day, and 9 hours or more per day. Thus, a range of sleep hours is considered appropriate for most healthy adults.
What about supplements, medicines, and other therapies for sleep?
Valerian contains small amounts of GABA, a sleep-promoting neurotransmitter, and some studies have shown that valerian can improve sleep. However, other studies have found no difference in sleep when taking valerian compared with placebo, and there appears to be minimal benefit in those who have diagnosed insomnia. The AASM does not recommend valerian for insomnia disorder.
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Hormone Changes In Sleep Deprivation Impact Weight Thyroid Function
Sleep deprivation can have significant and important effects on the secretion of hormones from endocrine glands, especially those that follow a circadian pattern. A classic example includes the effect of sleep loss or disruption in children and the impact on growth. Growth hormone is secreted during slow-wave sleep, which is more common in the early part of the night in children. When this sleep is disrupted, either through inadequate sleep or from disorders such as sleep apnea, the amount of growth hormone released is compromised. As a result, children may not reach their full growth potential, becoming shorter than they otherwise would have been.
Sleep deprivation also seems to affect the activity of the thyroid gland. It is thought that the increased energy needs while staying awake for too long demand more work from the thyroid.
Fortunately, studies also suggest that many other hormones do not seem to be affected by sleep deprivation, including:
This may provide you some relief, but there is still a risk of major health effects from not getting enough sleep.
The Impact Of Chronic Sleepiness
People who are sleep deprived often say they feel âfoggy.â Here are three reasons.
1. Sleepiness slows down your thought processes. Scientists measuring sleepiness have found that sleep deprivation leads to lower alertness and concentration. Itâs more difficult to focus and pay attention, so youâre more easily confused. This hampers your ability to perform tasks that require logical reasoning or complex thought.
Sleepiness also impairs judgment. Making decisions is more difficult because you canât assess situations as well and pick the right behavior.
2. Excessive sleepiness impairs memory. Research suggests that the nerve connections that make our memories are strengthened during sleep. âSleep embeds the things that we have learned and experienced over the course of the day into our short-term memory,â says Avelino Verceles, MD, assistant professor at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and director of the schoolâs sleep medicine fellowship.
It appears that different phases of sleep play different roles in consolidating new information into memories. If your sleep is cut short or disrupted, it interferes with these cycles.
Sleep Disturbances As A Symptom Of Ipv
Hauri and Fisher proposed atheoretical framework of how stressful events may lead to enduring sleepdisturbances. According to their learning perspective, a stressful event maycause insomnia which subsequently leads to associations of the sleep environmentwith frustration and arousal, which then becomes a maintaining factor of theinsomnia after the termination of the stressful event. Sleep disturbance,particularly sleep deprivation, can undermine attention, cognition, memoryprocesses and decision making, relevant to perform well in academic,professional, and motherhood settings, for example. Low self-esteem associatedwith IPV was the most relevant predictor of depression, anxiety, insomnia, andsomatic symptoms.
Theories about insomnia specifically state that problems initiating and/ormaintaining sleep are caused by biopsychosocial stressors,, including actual and/orperceived threat related toviolence, that is a strong life stressor event. Actual or perceived threat issupposed to be the main triggering factor for acute, if not chronic, insomnia,with women who experienced extreme danger reporting higher levels ofclinical-level insomnia.This is perhaps even more salient for IPV relative to other stressors and lifeevents, as safety issues may be more acutely felt when ones home and sleepenvironment represent past or present danger and when onesclosest friends and family are the source of threat.
Physical And Sexual Violence
The FRAaccess to justice andgender equality. For example, one in three women has experienced physical and/orsexual violence since the age of 15 one in five women has experienced stalking every second woman has been confronted with one or more forms of sexualharassment. What emerges is a picture of extensive abuse that affects manywomen\u2019s lives but is systematically under-reported to the authorities. Thescale of violence against women is therefore not reflected by official data.This FRA survey is the first of its kind on violence against women across the 28Member States of the European Union partner 22% have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by apartner since the age of 15. One third of victims of physical violence bya previous partner experienced four or more different forms of physicalviolence.
Whereas in most cases violence by a previous partner occurred during therelationship, one in six women who has been victimized by a previouspartner experienced violence after the relationship had broken up. Of thosewomen who experienced violence by a previous partner and were pregnant duringthis relationship, 42% experienced violence by the partner while pregnant. Incomparison, 20% experienced violence by their current partner whilepregnant.
In Portugal, 4% of women reported being victim of physical and/or sexual abuse bya current partner and 5% by any partner during their lifetime.
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Immediate Effects Of Sleep Deprivation
About one-third of American adults do not get enough sleep each night, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Short sleep duration in adults is defined as less than 7 hours of sleep in 24 hours. About 40% of adults report unintentionally falling asleep during the day at least once a month, and up to 70 million Americans have chronic sleep problems. Because of the public health burden of poor sleep health, achieving sufficient sleep in children and adults was included as a goal in the Healthy People 2020 goals.
Sleep helps to process your thoughts from the day as well as store memories, so a lack of good-quality sleep can lead to difficulty focusing and thinking clearly. You may feel tired, irritable, or anxious during the day. Performance at work or school may suffer. Your reaction time may be slowed, increasing the risk of driving accidents.
In children, insufficient sleep can lead to attention and behavior problems or hyperactivity. In the elderly, lack of sleep may decrease focus and attention, leading to a greater risk of falls, bone fractures, and car accidents.
There are several reasons people may get insufficient sleep:
How Sleep Affects Mental Health
Lack of sleep is a key contributor to mental illness, including sleep-induced psychosis. The reason is that when we’re sleep deprived, our brain rewires itself to adapt to its sleep-deprived state. Sleep deprivation is not only a symptom of mental illness but could be a cause of it as well.
To illustrate what that looks like in real life, Harvard scientists studied a group of students who had been awake for 35 hours straight to see how it affected their brains. They compared these students to the control group, which got a normal amount of rest. Both groups were shown a series of images ranging from every day, neutral images like baskets, to disturbing and violent pictures like burn victims.
The sleep-deprived students’ brains exhibited radically different behavior. In the sleep-deprived students’ amygdalas, or the part of the brain that experiences emotions, were sending signals to the brain that triggers intense emotions, like fight-or-flight responses. In the control group, the amygdala was connecting to the prefrontal cortex, which is in charge of logic and decision-making, allowing them to remain calm.
The results of this study show us that when we get enough rest, we’re better at processing outside stimuli and distinguishing between real and perceived threats. However, when faced with deprivation, our brains shift into survival mode and begin to interpret more surroundings as threats, which results in irrational, and, sometimes, even violent behavior.
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Memory And Cognitive Problems
Not only does sleep help us build our long-term memory bank, but it’s necessary for short-term memory, attention, and processing speed. Studies have objectively shown that more sleep leads to better cognitive performance and vice versa.
One of the most dangerous cognitive issues associated with sleep deprivation is decreased judgment. Since the part of our brain that has to do with logic and reasoning isn’t as active, we tend to be more impulsive, take unnecessary risks, plan things poorly, and even focus on short-term rewards instead of longer-term consequences.
Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
Sleep loss is generally a readily treatable health issue. However, it often goes undetected. The most important thing for healthcare providers to do is routinely screen for concerns with sleep in patients. Once a patient is found to have difficulty sleeping, proper treatment can begin.
For both diagnosis and treatment, an interprofessional team approach is beneficial. The family practitioner can enlist the help of psychiatry professionals or a sleep disorder specialist. The pharmacist should monitor all medications, looking for drug interactions, side effects potential, and in rare cases, misuse of sleep medication, alerting the team of any issues. Nursing can also play a vital role by verifying patient compliance, counseling on lifestyle and sleep hygiene issues, and letting the treating clinician know of any concerns. Psychiatric and medical care go hand and hand in promoting good sleep. It is essential that a psychiatrist considers a patient’s physical health and that a PCP considers a patient’s psychiatric health when treating sleep. Only with an interprofessional approach can sleep disorder management be optimized for patient benefit.
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Physical Abuse / Physical Violence
Physical abuse is a form of domestic and family violence. It is also known as physical violence. It is one of many types of domestic violence, possibly the most well known.
Understanding physical abuse / physical violence
This video explains Physical Abuse / Physical Violence
What is physical abuse / physical violence?
Physical violence and abuse happens when a person uses physical force against another person. It can include direct assaults on the body using objects or weapons assault on children, assault of pets, being denied access to your home, deprivation of sleep or food. Physical violence and abuse can start slowly and inconspicuously, for example with throwing an object or a slap, and get more intense or worse over time.
Signs of physical abuse / physical violence
A person can experience many different types of abuse that are physical. These include:
- shaking, slapping, pushing, punching or scratching
- trying to strangle or choke
- using weapons
- destroying property and throwing things
- abuse of children or pets
- locking someone out of their house or in the house
- sleep and food deprivation
- forced feeding
- physical restraint e.g. pinning against the wall or bed.
Learn more about the other types of abuse.
What to do if you are experiencing physical violence
If you are in an abusive relationship or need to talk to someone, please call us:
Womensline 1800 811 811 anytime 24/7.
Mensline 1800 600 636, between 9am midnight, 7 days.