How Much Deep And Light Sleep Do Children Need
Babies and children need more sleep than adults. Babies need the most, spending about 16 of every 24 hours asleep. Approximately 50 percent of their slumber is spent in the REM stage, while the other 50 percent is divided between stages 1 through 4 and NREM sleep that cycles between light and deep.
As children grow older, the amount of sleep they need varies:
- toddlers: 11 to 14 hours
- preschoolers: 10 to 13 hours
- school-aged children: 9 to 12 hours
- teens: 8 to 10 hours
With enough sleep that appears to be restful, its likely that the light, deep, and REM ratio is exactly where it should be in young people.
If theyre having trouble with falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping well, or if they are sleeping way too much for their age, children may be irritable, could have learning and memory problems, or may be more susceptible to illness.
Enhance Your Sleep Cycles
According to the National Sleep Foundation, research shows that most adults need 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. But other findings suggest that the type of sleep we get is more important than the duration of our sleep.
When we sleep, our body goes through five specific stages as noted by he National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Each stage accumulates to REM sleep, and then restarts, completing one cycle. The first stage through REM takes about 90 minutes to complete, and adults typically need to complete at least four or five sleep cycles per night, or 6 to 9 total hours of sleep.
Stage 1 of the sleep cycle is considered light sleep. When in stage 1, sleepers drift in and out of sleep, easily awakened. Physically, sleepers eyes and muscle activity slows down, but may experience muscle contractions. Youve probably experienced this its when you wake up as if youre startled. Hypnic myoclonia is the proper term for this, and is often described as a falling sensation sleepers get when sleeping.
When awakened during stage 1 sleep, most people are unable to remember simple things. To test this out, try having a conversation with someone as theyre falling asleep and see how much they remember. And if youve ever turned your alarm off in the morning and went back to sleep only to forget that you turned it off in the first place, youre probably being awakened during stage 1.
What It Means
What Are The Sleep Stages
There are four sleep stages one for rapid eye movement sleep and three that form non-REM sleep. These stages are determined based on an analysis of brain activity during sleep, which shows distinct patterns that characterize each stage.
|REM Sleep||10-60 minutes|
The breakdown of a persons sleep into various cycles and stages is commonly referred to as sleep architecture. If someone has a sleep study, this sleep architecture can be represented visually in a hypnogram.
The classification of sleep stages was by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine . Before that, most experts referred to five sleep stages, but today, the AASM definitions of the four stages represent the consensus understanding of the sleep cycle.
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Exploring Monophasic Through To Uberman Sleep Cycles
According to the National Sleep Foundation, 85% of mammals sleep in polyphasic patterns, meaning that they sleep in portions throughout the day. The vast majority of humans, however, are monophasic. But is a one block sleeping pattern always best for us? Read on to find out whether a biphasic or uberman sleeping pattern would be more suitable.
There Are 4 Sleep Calculation Scenarios To Choose From
Depending on your situation you might want to know when to go to sleep in order to wake up at a specified time , you might want to determine the best times to wake up after having gone to sleep at a specified time , you might want to simply know the best times to wake up if you were to go to sleep this instant or if you plan to take a power nap it will give you the best time at which you should wake up .
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Sweet Dreams Are Made Of These
What do we know about the best sleepers in America? Americas healthiest, happiest and best-rested people. According to the data, the two factors that most significantly contribute to a good nights sleep are exercise and simply getting enough of it.
- Americans who exercise enjoy better sleep, regardless of gender or age
- Americans average 10 extra minutes of sleep when they work out during the day
- Exercisers snore less than non-exercisers
- Americans who get more than 8 hours of sleep enjoy an average sleep quality of 82 percent the highest sleep quality of all Americans
- These Americans have an average bedtime of 10:45 p.m. almost an hour earlier than other Americans
Perhaps surprisingly, daytime coffee or tea drinking also correlates to higher sleep quality: Americans sleep an average of six minutes longer when they drink tea or coffee, and their sleep quality increases by .5-1 percent.
Early bedtime independent of sleep duration also correlates with positive sleep outcomes: Americans who wake up in the best mood also tuck in early and average 7 hours and 33 minutes of sleep.
How Much Rem Sleep Do You Need
Your first period of REM sleep each night usually occurs within 90 minutes of falling asleep, and only lasts about 10 minutes. On average youll go through 3-5 REM cycles per night, with each episode getting longer as the night progresses. The final one may last roughly an hour.
For healthy adults, spending 20-25% of your time asleep in the REM stage is a good goal. If you get 7-8 hours of sleep, around 90 minutes of that should be REM.
The normal amount of REM sleep also declines with age, beginning with infancy and extending all the way through adulthood.
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What Poor Sleepers Have In Common
Which Americans are getting the poorest sleep? Not counting Americans with newborns, here are a few things bad sleepers have in common:
- They eat late at night. Late eaters enjoy a poorer sleep quality than people whove had a stressful day.
- They had a stressful day. When Americans have a stressful day, they get even less sleep than late eaters and wake up in a worse mood .
- They live in Hawaii. See Geographically Sleeping below.
Things That Can Disturb Your Sleep
Getting enough sleep is essential to your health and wellbeing. There are different ways to improve your sleep and treat insomnia.
Many things can make sleeping difficult too, like alcohol, drugs and medication. Mental or physical illness can reduce your quality of sleep just as much as stress or working shifts at odd hours. Some people’s sleep is disturbed by nightly pauses in breathing or restless legs syndrome. Others wake up several times each night to go to the bathroom. During menopause many women find that their sleep is interrupted by hot flashes.
Grinding your teeth , talking in your sleep or sleepwalking can also affect how well you sleep. Nightmares can also make you wake with a start and influence how long and deeply you sleep. Jetlag is another factor that can really confuse your sleep-wake cycle for a while. Almost half of us snore. You often do not notice it yourself, but it can disturb others’ sleep.
Lack of sleep not only affects your quality of life. It can also be dangerous because it increases your chances of having accidents. This makes it important to find out the underlying cause if you are regularly sleeping poorly.
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Stage 3 Sleep: Deep Sleep Non
A quarter of our time asleep is spent in Stage 3 , which typically initiates about 40 minutes after first falling asleep. This stage is also called Deep Sleep , or delta sleep, due to the brains production of long, slow waves called delta waves.
In previous years, a Stage 4 was also identified, but as of 2008 has been merged with Stage 3 into a single stage.
We enjoy complete unconsciousness during this phase of sleep, and are almost entirely oblivious to external stimuli, including light, sound, and movements. Waking is difficult, and should you wake, you feel very disoriented . It is during this phase that common sleep disorders may occur, particularly in children, including bedwetting, night terrors, and sleepwalking.
Deep sleep is the most physiologically profound stage of sleep. When you enter this stage, your body releases human growth hormone , a powerful substance that plays a vital role in cellular repair. Built-up waste products are flushed away, tissues are repaired and regrown, bones and muscles are built especially in growing children, and the immune system is strengthened.
Subjectively, deep sleep is considered to be the most refreshing portion of the entire sleep cycle. It effectively erases the accumulated need for sleep that builds over a normal day of wakefulness, and may play a major role in helping clear the brain for new learning the following day.
The Sequence Of Sleep Stages
Sleep follows a specific sequence of these different stages. We complete a sleep cycle and begin a new one approximately every 80 to 110 minutes, usually around 90 minutes. A nights sleep begins with a light-sleep phase of varying duration, followed by the first deep-sleep phase of the night and a short REM phase. In the second half of the night, we spend a relatively shorter amount of time in deep-sleep phases while our REM phases tend to be longer. The final REM phase of the night can last for as long as 30 minutes or more. And then, we wake up.
The pattern of REM sleep changes as we grow older. During the first year of life, babies spend most of their time asleep in REM sleep. After the age of four, the proportion of REM sleep falls to about 20 percent of the night. People over the age of 60 spend only about 15 percent of the night in REM sleep. With the exception of infants, people spend most of the night in the light sleep phase.
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Why Is Sleep Important For Babies
Sleep is a vital part of early childhood development. As your baby sleeps, its brain and body undergo substantial growth and changes. Without sleep, a child may show stunted development in both mental and physical faculties.
Babies and toddlers who get plenty of sleep tend to function better during the day. They’re better at paying attention and focusing, making it easier to learn during the day for developing minds.
Alternative Sleep Cycles And Patterns:
Monophasic sleep is just one cycle among many. Studies have shown that there are other, more pragmatic ways to get some shut eye. In 2001, historian Roger Ekirch published a seminal paper that suggested humans originally slept in two phases. His book, At Days Close: Night in Times Past, shows over 500 references to polyphasic sleep throughout history, from Homers Odyssey to modern tribes in Nigeria.
Each of these alternate sleep cycles are polyphasic which means they involve multiple sleep phases each day.
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The Sleep Calculator Is Just Unscientific Hype
Sleep Health Foundation says that the assumptions that the Sleep Calculator makes, and the advice it gives, are not based on scientific evidence.
The Calculator takes two scientific facts, firstly that we have sleep cycles across the night of approximately 90 minutes in duration and secondly that waking from REM sleep is more likely to make you feel refreshed, and massively over-generalises. Following the advice may make you awake refreshed in the morning but it may not. Here is why.
There have been a number of media stories recently on the supposed benefits of calculating when you should go to bed so you wake more refreshed when the alarm goes off in the morning. It gives a series of time recommendations like 9.45pm or 11.15pm if you want to wake up at 7am. The idea is to align your bedtime to your 90 minute sleep cycles, so you wake after a complete cycle in REM sleep and thus feel more refreshed.
However, the Sleep Health Foundation says that the assumptions that the Sleep Calculator makes, and the advice it gives, are not based on scientific evidence. The Calculator takes two scientific facts, firstly that we have sleep cycles across the night of approximately 90 minutes in duration and secondly that waking from REM sleep is more likely to make you feel refreshed, and massively over-generalises. Following the advice may make you awake refreshed in the morning but it may not. Here is why.
So the best advice for waking refreshed in the morning is to follow .
What Are Sleep Disorders
According to the American Sleep Association, at least 40 million Americans experience sleep disorders each year. Another 20 million have occasional sleep issues. These disorders cause sleep deprivation, leading to problems with work, school, driving and social activities.
There are more than 70 sleep disorders. A few, known as disruptive sleep disorders, lead to moving around or making sounds. Other sleep disorders involve food. And some sleep disorders overlap with psychiatric conditions. If you have problems with sleep or feel very tired, talk to your healthcare provider about a possible sleep disorder.
Some of the most common sleep disorders include:
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Stage 2 Sleep: Light Sleep Non
The greatest amount of sleep time approximately fifty percent of the total is spent in Stage 2 sleep. The actual time spent in each N2 stage is about 20 minutes, but in this relatively brief period, your body physiology is adjusting downwards in preparation for sliding into the actual restorative later stages of sleep. Physically, the following changes occur:
- Heart rate, breathing, and other body functions slow
- Body temperature drops
- Blood pressure drops
- Brainwaves lengthen
- Sleep spindles emerge these are peaks of brain activity considered essential in maintaining communications within the brain itself, as well as memory and learning
While classified as light sleep, sleepers in the N2 stage are harder to wake up than those still in N1.
How To Find Your Best Sleep Cycle: Polyphasic Biphasic And Monophasic Sleep
- There are three types of sleep cyclesmonophasic, biphasic, and polyphasic
- While most of the world embraces a monophasic, get-8-hours-a-night approach to sleep, that might not be the best sleep cycle for you and your individual needs
- Most experts believe our ancestors practiced a biphasic sleep cycle
- There are certain steps you can take to make your environment more sleep-friendly and get better shut-eyeno matter what sleep cycle you follow
When you think of getting a good nights sleep, whats the first thing that comes to mind?
Most of the conversation around proper sleep centers around the number of hours youre getting . But while logging eight hours of sleep every night might be a great fit for your body leaving you feeling refreshed, energized, and ready to take on the day theres no one-size-fits-all-solution to sleep. The best sleep schedule for you and your body might fall outside conventional parameters.
The good news is, when it comes to sleep, youve got options. Lets take a look at the three most common sleep cyclesand how to determine which is going to give you the high-quality zzzs to function at your highest level.
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Choosing The Right Sleep Pattern For You
As mentioned, theres no one-size-fits-all solution to sleep and the best sleep cycle for you is to follow is whichever is going to leave you feeling as well-rested as possible. If you find that following the norm and getting eight hours of sleep a night works for you? Go for it. If catching six hours of shut-eye every night and supplementing it with a nap or two leaves you energized, knock yourself out. If spreading your sleep across shorter blocks throughout the day feels best? More power to you.
Just make sure that whatever sleep schedule you choose, you stay consistent.
Consistency is crucial to healthy sleep, no matter what sleep schedule you follow, says Breus.
And while it might feel challenging at first to switch sleep patterns , if you stick to a consistent schedule, your body will adjustand the quality of your sleep will improve right along with it.
While its up to you to choose whatever sleep schedule is best for you, if you have mental health issues, Breus highly recommends sticking to a monophasic sleep pattern. Depression and other mood disorders are associated with disruptions to circadian rhythms, as well as with disrupted sleep patterns and poor-quality sleep, says Breus. Attempting to use a segmented sleep schedule could destabilize sleep patterns and circadian rhythm, worsening sleep and exacerbating mood disorders.
Tracking Sleep Through Smart Technology
Millions of people are using smartphone apps, bedside monitors, and wearable items to informally collect and analyze data about their sleep. Smart technology can record sounds and movement during sleep, journal hours slept, and monitor heart beat and respiration. Using a companion app, data from some devices can be synced to a smartphone or tablet, or uploaded to a PC. Other apps and devices make white noise, produce light that stimulates melatonin production, and use gentle vibrations to help us sleep and wake.
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