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Which Neurotransmitter Is Involved In Sleep Depression And Memory

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Regions That Affect Mood


Increasingly sophisticated forms of brain imaging such as positron emission tomography , single-photon emission computed tomography , and functional magnetic resonance imaging permit a much closer look at the working brain than was possible in the past. An fMRI scan, for example, can track changes that take place when a region of the brain responds during various tasks. A PET or SPECT scan can map the brain by measuring the distribution and density of neurotransmitter receptors in certain areas.

Use of this technology has led to a better understanding of which brain regions regulate mood and how other functions, such as memory, may be affected by depression. Areas that play a significant role in depression are the amygdala, the thalamus, and the hippocampus .

Research shows that the hippocampus is smaller in some depressed people. For example, in one fMRI study published in The Journal of Neuroscience, investigators studied 24 women who had a history of depression. On average, the hippocampus was 9% to 13% smaller in depressed women compared with those who were not depressed. The more bouts of depression a woman had, the smaller the hippocampus. Stress, which plays a role in depression, may be a key factor here, since experts believe stress can suppress the production of new neurons in the hippocampus.

What Causes Depression In The Brain

One of the most difficult aspects of understanding depression is pinpointing its root causes, as they vary from person to person. Sometimes, the reason is clear, such as witnessing or living through a traumatic event. Other times, the reason for depression is subtle and hidden under layers of suppressed memories. There are even times when were depressed for no clear reason. To help us understand why depression can manifest itself in so many different ways, researchers study the brain. Since our brains control, manage and balance our emotions, they are the key to understanding how and why we develop depression in the first place.

A Harvard Medical School special report, Understanding Depression explains the condition like this: Certain areas of the brain help regulate mood. Researchers believe thatmore important than levels of specific brain chemicalsnerve cell connections, nerve cell growth, and the functioning of nerve circuits have a major impact on depression.

Many of us blame our brain chemistry for depression or anxiety. But research like the report above indicates that the brains role in depression is much more complex than simply regulating emotions. Instead, the difference between a person who struggles with depression and a person who does not may have more to do with how the different parts of our brain work together.

Lets explore more about neurotransmitters and their role in the brain.

How Stress Affects The Body

Stress can be defined as an automatic physical response to any stimulus that requires you to adjust to change. Every real or perceived threat to your body triggers a cascade of stress hormones that produces physiological changes. We all know the sensations: your heart pounds, muscles tense, breathing quickens, and beads of sweat appear. This is known as the stress response.

The stress response starts with a signal from the part of your brain known as the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus joins the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands to form a trio known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which governs a multitude of hormonal activities in the body and may play a role in depression as well.

When a physical or emotional threat looms, the hypothalamus secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone , which has the job of rousing your body. Hormones are complex chemicals that carry messages to organs or groups of cells throughout the body and trigger certain responses. CRH follows a pathway to your pituitary gland, where it stimulates the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone , which pulses into your bloodstream. When ACTH reaches your adrenal glands, it prompts the release of cortisol.

The boost in cortisol readies your body to fight or flee. Your heart beats faster up to five times as quickly as normal and your blood pressure rises. Your breath quickens as your body takes in extra oxygen. Sharpened senses, such as sight and hearing, make you more alert.

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Neurotransmitters: Types Function And Examples

By Olivia Guy-Evans, published April 20, 2021

Key Points

  • Neurons do not make direct contact. There is a very small gap between neurons called a synapse. The signal needs to cross this gap to continue on its journey to, or from, the CNS. This is done using chemicals which diffuse across the gap between the two neurons. These chemicals are called neurotransmitters.
  • Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that are released from a synaptic vesicle into the synapse by neurons.
  • Some neurotransmitters act by making the neuron more negatively charged so less likely to fire. This is an inhibitory effect. This is the case for serotonin. Inhibitory neurotransmitters are generally responsible for calming the mindand inducing sleep.
  • Other neurotransmitters increase the positive charge so make the neuron more likely to fire. This is the excitatory effect. Adrenalin is which is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone has an excitatory effect.

A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that allow nerve cells to communicate with each other. A neurotransmitter signal travels from a neuron, across the synapse, to the next neuron. The synapse is the name given to the space between the two neurons.

Neurotransmitters are important in boosting and balancing signals in the brain and for keeping the brain functioning. They help manage automatic responses such as breathing and heart rate, but they also have psychological functions such as learning, managing mood, fear, pleasure, and happiness.

Behaviour And The Gut Microbiome


As discussed, central serotonin plays a major role in mood and cognition. An influence of gut microbiota on behaviour is becoming increasingly evident, via a variety of proposed mechanisms including changes to tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis.

Germ-free mice display less anxiety-like behaviours than their traditionally colonised counterparts . Meanwhile, chronic treatment with lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus to mice induced alterations in GABA receptors in cortical hippocampus, and amygdala in comparison with control-fed mice, while also reducing stress-induced corticosterone levels and anxiety- and depression-related behaviour . Interestingly, these effects were not found in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulatory communication pathway between the gut bacteria and the brain .

In animal models of depression, both environmental and surgical , animals display depressive-like behaviour and an altered intestinal microbial profile. These findings have now been replicated within a clinical population. In a recent study in major depression patients, several predominant genera were found in significantly different levels between the depressive and control groups showing either a predominance of some potentially harmful bacterial groups or a reduction in beneficial bacterial genera .

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How To Increase Acetylcholine Naturally

If you exhibit signs of low acetylcholine, its best to address it now since chronic acetylcholine deficiency can lead to dementia and Alzheimers later.

Two excellent places to start are to eat more choline-rich foods, especially eggs, and avoid taking anticholinergic drugs.

And please dont worry about eating eggs because of heart health.

Numerous studies confirm that eating eggs does not increase your risk of heart disease, even if you eat up to 12 eggs per week.

Theres even evidence that people who eat eggs have a lower risk of heart disease than those who dont eat eggs.

A huge long-term study conducted by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health followed the dietary habits of over 200,000 people.

Researchers concluded that there is no link between moderate egg consumption and heart disease.

What Role Does Serotonin Play In Our Health

As a neurotransmitter, serotonin helps to relay messages from one area of the brain to another. Because of the widespread distribution of its cells, it is believed to influence a variety of psychological and other body functions. Of the approximately 40 million brain cells, most are influenced either directly or indirectly by serotonin. This includes brain cells related to mood, sexual desire and function, appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature regulation, and some social behavior.

In terms of our body function, serotonin can also affect the functioning of our cardiovascular system, muscles, and various elements in the endocrine system. Researchers have also found evidence that serotonin may play a role in regulating milk production in the breast, and that a defect within the serotonin network may be one underlying cause of SIDS .

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Mechanisms That Regulate The Transitions Between Sleep And Wakefulness

The systems that promote wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep dynamically interact in a variety of ways to ensure rapid and complete transitions between sleep/wake states., The VLPO and other sleep-promoting preoptic neurons inhibit monoaminergic and cholinergic wake-promoting neurons, and the preoptic neurons themselves are inhibited by NE, 5-HT, and ACh., During wakefulness, high monoaminergic and cholinergic tone should thoroughly silence the VLPO, thus disinhibiting the arousal regions and helping ensure the production of complete wakefulness. Conversely, during sleep, preoptic neurons become active and inhibit the arousal regions, thus disinhibiting their own firing. This mutual inhibition should produce stable wakefulness and sleep while facilitating rapid transitions between sleep and wakefulness and minimizing time in drowsy, intermediate states. Similar mutually inhibitory circuits may regulate REM sleep as REM sleep-active neurons in the SLD inhibit and are inhibited by neurons in the vlPAG/LPT that are inactive in REM sleep.

Tryptophan And The Gut Microbiota

Neurotransmitters And Their Functions Dopamine, Glutamate, Serotonin, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine

Another piece of the serotonin puzzle involves the resident community of microorganisms that have colonised the digestive tract. The gut microbiota is primarily found in the large intestine, but smaller numbers can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract . Cross-talk between the gastrointestinal epithelium and enteric flora contributes to functions such as immune responses and regulation of hormones, and is proving to be critical to the maintenance of both homeostasis and health . How the bacterial community establishes early in life , or changes across the lifespan, can have consequences on the metabolism of tryptophan, and thus the serotonergic system. A balance is needed between bacterial utilization of tryptophan and the tryptophan necessary for serotonin synthesis in both enteric and central nervous systems .

In irritable bowel syndrome, changes in the balance of microbiota are associated with symptomatology as well as alterations to both gut and brain serotonin levels . Moreover, the expression of toll-like receptors, which act to alert the body to pathogens, are altered in both plasma and colonic samples from irritable bowel syndrome patients . Recent data also shows that bacterial products such as short chain fatty acids can upregulate serotonin production by the enterochromaffin cells .

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Examples Of Important Neurotransmitter Actions

As explained above, the only direct action of a neurotransmitter is to activate a receptor. Therefore, the effects of a neurotransmitter system depend on the connections of the neurons that use the transmitter, and the chemical properties of the receptors that the transmitter binds to.

Here are a few examples of important neurotransmitter actions:

What Role Do Neurotransmitters Play In Depression

Although studies continue to provide evidence for the different ways in which neurotransmitters relate to depression, research clearly shows that there is a connection between the two.

The ultimate goal in treating the biology of depression is to improve the brains ability to regulate mood, explains a Harvard Medical School special report. We now know that neurotransmitters are not the only important part of the machinery. But lets not diminish their importance either. They are deeply involved in how nerve cells communicate with one another. When the communication between nerve cells is impaired or weakened in any way, were more likely to experience depression.

Researchers now believe that there is a connection between low levels of certain neurotransmitter chemicals and depression.

Low Levels of Neurotransmitters

Historically, researchers believed that low levels of neurotransmitters caused depression. Today, experts arent entirely sure if depression lowers neurotransmitters itself or if low levels of neurotransmitters cause depression. What scientists do know, however, is that lower levels of neurotransmitters decrease the amount of nerve cell communication that occurs in the brain. When this happens, the brain may not receive the signals it needs to know when to fight, flight, experience pleasure, sleep, eat, reduce pain, or ease anxiety. This disconnect can cause us to experience symptoms of depression like insomnia, decreased appetite, or irritability.

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An Explanation Of Neurotransmitters

Medications for insomnia and hypersomnia usually act on neural systems and affect, in some manner, neurotransmitters. Sleep aids tend to work on the GABA receptors in the brain, or melatonin receptors. Stimulants usually work on dopamine or acetylcholine systems.

This website covers all aspects of sleep neurotransmitters are involved in sleep, waking, and the transitions between them. Brain chemistry is very complicated and scientists don’t totally understand how all the pieces fit together. Here we give a short description of major neurotransmitters.

Neurons are a specific type of cell found in the body and the brain that carries electrical information. Their job is to receive a signal from a cell, convert it to an electric signal called an action potential and transmit this electric signal to another cell that could also be another neuron. When they need to communicate to another cell or neuron, the first neuron sends a chemical called a neurotransmitter across the space between the two, over to the next cell. Once at the second cell, the neurotransmitter binds to a receptor, telling the second cell what to do or telling another neuron if to send a signal and whether it should be a strong or a weak signal.

GABA is not found in any significant amounts outside the brain. Indeed, GABA is pretty much unique to the central nervous system of mammals. Many sedatives and hypnotics are GABA agonists.

All About Acetylcholine: Neurotransmitter For Memory And Focus

Abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin ...

Edited and medically reviewed by Patrick Alban, DC | Written by Deane Alban

A low level of acetylcholine has a uniquely negative impact on memory and focus. Learn the three most effective ways you can increase acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is one of the most important and ubiquitous neurotransmitters.

Its been called the memory molecule for the critical role it plays in memory, learning, and attention.

It was the first neurotransmitter discovered and is one of the most abundant in the nervous system.

A typical sign of insufficient acetylcholine is whats referred to as senior moments.

But when your acetylcholine level is low, these memory lapses can occur at any age.

If your memory and ability to focus arent as good as youd like, you should learn more about this unique brain chemical.

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Can Diet Influence Our Supply Of Serotonin

It can, but in a roundabout way. Unlike calcium-rich foods, which can directly increase your blood levels of this mineral, there are no foods that can directly increase your body’s supply of serotonin. That said, there are foods and some nutrients that can increase levels of tryptophan, the amino acid from which serotonin is made.

Protein-rich foods, such as meat or chicken, contain high levels of tryptophans. Tryptophan appears in dairy foods, nuts, and fowl. Ironically, however, levels of both tryptophan and serotonin drop after eating a meal packed with protein. Why? According to nutritionist Elizabeth Somer, when you eat a high-protein meal, you “flood the blood with both tryptophan and its competing amino acids,” all fighting for entry into the brain. That means only a small amount of tryptophan gets through — and serotonin levels don’t rise.

But eat a carbohydrate-rich meal, and your body triggers a release of insulin. This, Somer says, causes any amino acids in the blood to be absorbed into the body — but not the brain. Except for, you guessed it — tryptophan! It remains in the bloodstream at high levels following a carbohydrate meal, which means it can freely enter the brain and cause serotonin levels to rise, she says.

What can also help: Getting an adequate supply of vitamin B-6, which can influence the rate at which tryptophan is converted to serotonin.

Can Exercise Boost Serotonin Levels

Exercise can do a lot to improve your mood — and across the board, studies have shown that regular exercise can be as effective a treatment for depression as antidepressant medication or psychotherapy. In the past, it was believed that several weeks of working out was necessary to see the effects on depression, but new research conducted at the University of Texas at Austin found that just a single 40-minute period of exercise can have an immediate effect on mood.

That said, it remains unclear of the exact mechanism by which exercise accomplishes this. While some believe it affects serotonin levels, to date there are no definitive studies showing that this is the case.

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Disorders Associated With Neurotransmitters

Symptoms associated with mental health conditions such as mood and anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are believed to be the result in part from an imbalance of neurotransmitter levels in the brain.

With anxiety disorders, this may reflect the reduced GABA activity in the brain and an imbalance of its receptors. This has also been shown to be linked to an imbalance of serotonin and norepinephrine responses. Similarly, there is also evidence that there may be links to increased excitability of glutamate in those with anxiety.

In depression, there is evidence of abnormalities in noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic transmission. Overall, serotonin has been shown to play a role in mood disorders as well as obsessive compulsive disorder .

Finally, dopamine levels have been shown to be associated with addictions and schizophrenia. The sensitivity of dopamine receptors or too much dopamine is suggested to be associated with

What Are The Long Term Effects Of Serotonin Syndrome


On the other extreme, patients with more severe toxicity can have high fever, hyperreflexia and hyperthermia. Cognitive or mental changes may include restlessness, confusion or some impairment in the level of consciousness. In more severe states, patients can develop seizures or coma, according to Dr. Moylan.

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